1. 名词后缀 -ion definition
2. 名词后缀 -age marriage
3. 名词后缀 -ity security
4. 形容词后缀 -al agricultural，industrial，traditional，social
5. 动词后缀 -ize industrialize
1. …a group of people related by blood or marriage， …
句子中的by常可与某些名词连用，在名词前面不加定冠词the，意思相当于“with regard to”，“according to”。请看下面的例句：
1） He is an Englishman by birth. （他祖籍英国。）
2） He is a teacher by profession. （他以医生为职业。）
3） By birth and by education Thomas Jefferson belonged to the highest social class， but he never looked down upon the working-class people.
1）It is not difficult for people to relate the result to the cause. （人们要把结果和原因联系起来并不困难。）
2）It might be more helpful to you if you can relate theory to practice.（如果你能把理论和实践联系起来，对你的帮助也许会更大。）
1） He related us a story vividly. （他生动地给我们讲述了一个故事。）
2） His talk related to the international situation. （他的讲话涉及国际形势。）
3） He relates very well to his classmates. （他和同学们相处得很好。）
1） These four people are closely related to each other. （这四个人联系紧密。）
2） He is very much interesting in painting and the related arts. （他对绘画及其有关的艺术很感兴趣。）
2. …all those people descended from a common ancestor， …所有来自同一祖先的人们。
“descended from a common ancestor”是一个省略了that的定语从句，修饰people.descended from的意思是“传下，遗传”，如：
1） His family were descended from an Indian tribe. （他的家庭是印第安部落的后裔。）
2） Darwin concluded that men were descended from apes. （达尔文断定人由猿进化而来。）
descend to 的意思是“屈尊，降低；转而说到”
1） The firm had descended to using nude pictures for advertising. （那家公司堕落到用裸照做广告。）
2）Mr. Lee then descended to the details we had to be careful about.（李先生转而谈到了我们必须注意的细节问题。）
1）No doubt， this is a grammatical mistake common to beginners in English. （毫无疑问，这是英语初学者常犯的语法错误。）
2）How could you have no idea about this common knowledge？ （对这个普通常识你怎么会一无所知。）
3）They have no common interests. （他们没有共同的爱好。）
3. Some people thank of a family as a mother， a father， and their children， …
think of …as …是一个很常用的词组，意思是“把…看作…”，如：
1） He often thinks of himself as a genius. （他常把自己看作为天才。）
2） The Yellow River is thought of as the cradle of the Chinese nation. （黄河被看作为中华民族的摇篮。）
regard…as look upon…as…
4. For others， having a family simply means having children.
本句中，having a family做主语，mean为谓语动词，having children 做宾语。mean在句中的意思是“意味着”。当mean作“意味着”解释时，在它的后面应该跟名词或者动名词，如：
1）Accepting the job would mean moving to another city. （接受这份工作将意味着我得搬到另一个城市去。）
2）A raise in the worker's salary will mean a cut in the profit. （增加工人的工资意味着利润的降低。）
1）I didn't mean to offend you. （我无意冒犯你。）
2）I meant to give you the book yesterday， but I forgot it. （我原打算昨天把书给你的，但我忘了。）
5. Some families have long histories， while others know very little about their ancestors.
请注意while的用法，在本句中while是一个表示转折意味的连词，意思是“然而”。如：Fred gambled all his money away while Jane saved every penny for her son's schooling. （弗雷德赌输了他所有的钱，而珍妮却为儿子的教育攒下每一分钱。）
1）They decided to find a less expensive place to stay while in Paris.（在巴黎期间，他们打算找个更便宜的地方住。）
2）He looked at his watch several times while talking to her. （在跟她交谈时，他看了几次表。）
3）One group of children are quiet， while the second group was very active. （一组孩子很安静，而第二组孩子非常活跃。）
4）While I have sympathy for these people， I think they are guilty. （尽管我同情这些人，但我觉得他们有罪。）
5）We will succeed while we don't lose hope. （只要我们不失去希望，我们就会成功。）
6. No matter if it is young or old， large or small traditional or modern， every family has a sense of what a family is.
no matter if 连接让步状语从句，更常见的是用no matter whether.除了no matter whether以外，no matter wh-引导的让步状语从句还有：no matter what， no matter who， no matter whose， no matter which， no matter when， no matter where， no matter how等等。而用wh-ever引导让步从句也是十分常见的。请看下面的例句：
1） No matter what happens， please let me know. （无论发生什么事，请让我知道。）
2） No matter who telephones， tell him I'm out. （无论谁来电话，告诉他我出去了。）
3） No matter how hard I tried， I couldn't succeed. （无论我多努力，我总不能成功。）
4） No matter whether you believe it or not， it's truth. （无论你信不信，那总是事实。）
5） No matter where you go， I will follow you. （无论你去哪里，我都跟着你。）
6） No matter which book you like you can have it. （无论你喜欢哪本书，你都可以拿去。）
7） No matter whose money it is， we can't spend it so carelessly. （无论是谁的钱，我们都不能这样随意地花）
1） Whatever happens， please let me know.
2） Whoever telephones， tell him I'm out.
3） However hard I tried， I couldn't succeed.
4） Wherever you go， I will follow you.
5） Whichever book you like， you can have it.
7. It is that feeling of belonging， of love and security that comes from living together， helping and sharing.
本句中的it代指课文前一句中的a sense of what a family is. feeling of belonging 意思为“归属感”。
that comes from living together， helping and sharing 是定语从句，修饰that feeling of belonging， of love and security.
8. However， with the change from an agricultural to an industrial society， many nuclear families moved away from the family home in order to find work.
1） This， however， is not your fault. （但这不是你的错。）
2） I'd like to go with you， however， my hands are full. （我很想和你一起去，可是我忙不过来。）
1）With the change of the economic foundation， the superstructure has to be transformed too.（随着经济基础的改变，上层建筑也必须改造。）
2）With the development of science and technology， the society is changing rapidly.（随着科学技术的发展，社会在迅速地改变。）
1）Who will go with you？ （谁和你一起去？）
2）The teacher is very strict with us. （老师对我们很严格。）
3）At the news we all jumped with joy. （听了这个消息，我们都高兴得跳了起来。With表示原因。）
4）He wanted to kill two birds with one stone. （他想一举两得。With意为“用，以”，译法可灵活。）
5）China is a country with a large population. （中国是一个有众多人口的国家。With表示“有，带有”）
6）He finished this work with great difficulty. （他好不容易才完成了这项工作。With引起短语作方式状语。）
7）He was sitting in a chair with his hands folded.
8）What's wrong with you？ （你怎么了？with意为“就…来说”）
9）With your knowledge and experience， you are sure to find a good job. （以（凭）你的知识和经验，你肯定会找到一份好工作。）
10）With all his shortcomings， he was a nice person. （尽管他有缺点，他还是个不错的人。）
句子中的in order to find work做目的状语，除了用in order to 以外，还可以用so as to，也可以把in order，so as省去，只用不定式。请看例句：
1）He decided to study harder （so as ） to catch up with the others. （他决定加紧学习好赶上别人。）
2）He ran out in a hurry （in order） to catch the last bus. （为了赶上末班车，他匆匆向外跑去。）
9. Therefore we can say that the nuclear family becomes more important than the extended family as the society industrializes.
句子中的therefore是一个副词，通常用来表示后面将要表述的内容是前面已经表述的内容的结果，也可以用来引导一个结论。类似的表达还有：so，consequently，as a result 等等。请看例句：
1）It rained， therefore the football match was put off. （天下雨，所以足球比赛延期了。）
2）He is too careless， as a result he failed the exam. （他太粗心，所以考试没及格。）
3）He was ill for about a month， consequently he lagged behind his classmates.（他病了一个月，因此落在了同学后面。）
as the society industrializes随着社会的工业化。as是一个连词，表示“当…时”。请看例句：
1）As time goes on， you'll like this place better. （随着时间的推移，你会更喜欢这个地方。）
2）As he talked on he got more and more excited. （他谈着的时候，越来越兴奋。）
1）The nuclear family is becoming smaller as parents want fewer children.
2）As social scientists study these two new family forms， they will be able to tell us more about the future of the nuclear family in the post-industrial age.
10. social scientists now talk of two new family forms…
1）What are you talking about？ （你们在谈什么？）
2）They are talking of visiting Mr. Zhang. （他们正谈论去看张先生的事。）
3） What do you mean when you talk about culture？ （你谈论文化时指的是什么？）
Text B The Changing American Family
1. all over
We have friends all over the world.
I have been looking all over for him.
2. provide for
Father had to work very hard to provide food and clothes for the family.
They are trying to provide some guidance for the newcomers.
3. be expected to
Parents are expected to provide for their children.
You are expected to be here before eight.
4. take care of
The nurse took care of the old lady when her daughter was away.
The cat and the dog were taken good care of.
5. on the other hand
I don't think this proposal is workable. On one hand we don't have so much money， on the other hand time is too limited.
6. be considered to be
He is considered to be the best candidate for the job.
Father is considered to be a humorous and responsible person.
7. in addition （to）
In addition， there are some magazines on the table.
In addition to bread， we had some milk and eggs for breakfast.
8. make decision
You have to make an immediate decision about the project.
It is difficult for me to make a decision right now.
9. help with
He hoped that his brother would help him with his math.
At weekends I often help my mother with the housework.
10. in contrast
In contrast with the low grade I got， Paul got a full mark on the biology test.
Their club， in contrast， reached a membership of 2000 last year.
11. give up
You will amount to nothing if you always give up easily.
The doctor persuaded my father to give up smoking.
12. get ready for
He got up early in the morning in order to get ready for the exam.
I haven't got ready for the interview yet.
13. be busy doing
Mother is busy cooking in the kitchen.
The teacher is busy distributing the test papers.
14. in conclusion
She will say a few words about the arrangement in conclusion.
In conclusion， the old people are happy in most of the Asian countries.
15. instead of
Instead of getting the bike repaired he bought a new one.
Who is going to the meeting instead of you？