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江苏自学考试语言学概论教材大纲

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  南京师范大学编 (高纲号 0095)

  语言学概论是英语专业本科段的一门理论课程。该课程通过对英语语言的语音、音位、词法和句法各系统的分析,介绍普通语言学的基本理论模式、概念和研究方法。应试者通过本课程的自学,应能清楚地解释语言中的重要概念、初步地懂得语言的研究方法,并能运用所学的理论知识,分析有关的英语语言现象。

  一、 考试内容

  Chapter One Introduction

  1. Differences between general linguistics and descriptive linguistics.

  2. The nature of language(s)

  System/symbolic/vocal/arbitrary/creative/changeable/double-structured

  3. Scientific method in linguistics

  Common biases/the process of rule-construction

  4. The goal of linguistics

  Model/competence/explicitness/generativeness

  5. The sub-brancuistics

  Phonetics/phonology/morphology/syntax/semantics

  6. Saussure: the father of linguistics

  three major distinctions: synchronic/diachronic; paradigmatic/cyntagmatic; langue/parole

  Chapter Two Phonetics

  1. The sub-branches of phouetics aritculatory/acoustic/auditory

  2. The names of speech organs: Figure 1,p.17

  3. International Phonetic Alphabet

  Relationship between spelling and sound in English/advantages of IPA

  4. Classification of the English consonants

  (1)the position of the soft palate:nasal/oral;

  (2)the presence or the absence of vocal-cord vibration; voiceless/voiced;

  (3)thep lace of articulation:bilabials/labiodentals/dentals/alveolars/post-alveolars/alveopalatals/palatals/velars/glottals;

  (4)the manner of articulation;

  stops/fricatives/affricates/liquids/glides

  5.Classification fo the English vowels

  (1)the state of the velum:oral/nasal;

  (2)the position of the tongue:high-mid-low/front/central/back

  (3)lip rounding:rounded/unrounded

  (6)diphthongs/triphthongs

  (7)Phonetic features

  consonantal/vocalic/continuant/voiced/aspirated/nasal/anterior/coronal

  Chapter Three Phonology

  1.Importaet concepts

  phoneme/phone/allophone:minimal pair/minimal set

  2.Identifying phonemes

  (1)environment/distribution/contrastive distribution/complementary distribution/free variation

  (2)principles;contrastive distribution-separate phonemes; free variation——phonetic variants; complementary distribution+phonetically similar——phonetic variants.

  (3)procedures; Figure 13,p.36

  3.Sequential constraints

  4.Distinctive features

  5.Suprasegemental features;

  stress/tone and intonation/juncture

  Chapter Four Morphology

  1.morpheme/morph/allomorph

  2.Classifications of morphemes;

  (1)root/affiz;free/bound;lexical/functional

  (2)prefixes/suffixes/infixes

  (3)inflectional/derivational

  3.Identifying morphemes

  (1)cutting sound sequences into morphs; comparison;

  (2)grouping morphs into morphemes; semanti-cally indentical+complementary distribution——separate morphemes

  (3)empty morph/zero morph

  4.Morphemic analysis

  (1)Immediate Constituent Analysis(JC analysis);

  ultimate constituents/immediate constituents/constituents;

  (2)principles of IC analysis;

  meaningful relationship/morphological rules

  5.Word-formation processes

  (1)main processes; affixation/conversion/compounding;

  (2)minor processes; blending/clipping/acronymy/back-formation

  Chapter Five Syntax(Ⅰ)

  1.Three types of syntactic relations;

  sequential(syntagmatic)/substitutional (paradigmatic)/hierarchical

  2.Identifying syntactic categories;

  morphological and distributional features

  3.Labeled IC analysis;

  phrase marker/node; labeled brackets; complete/partial phrase marker

  Chapter Six Syntax(Ⅱ)

  1.Phrase structure rules(PS rules)/transformational rules (T-rules);

  deep structure/surface structure

  2.The PS rules for the sentences, noun phrases, verb phrases and auxiliary phrases

  Chapter Seven Syntax(Ⅲ)

  1.Three kinds of operations performed by T-rules;optional/compulsory transformations.

  2.The structure of a T-rule; The structural description (SD)/the structural change(SC)

  3.T-rules; T-affix/T-Passive/T-Agent-deletion/T-Negation/T-Do-insertion/T-Yes/No question/

  T-Reflexivization/T-Imperative

  4.Ordering of transformations

  二、考试形式

  本课程只进行笔试,试卷以英语命题,以英语答卷。试卷由两大部分组成;理论部分和应用部分可能有采用的形式如下:

  1.Theory-oriented questions

  1.Fill in the blanks

  e.g.English phonetics has three sub-branches_______,_______,_______.

  2.Multiple-choice questions

  e.g.Morpheme is defined as

  (a)a meaningful unit

  (b)a minimal unit

  (c)a minimal meaningful grammatical unit

  (d)a minimal meaningful unit

  3.go If two or more sounds can occur in the

  same environment,they are said to Le in comple-mentary distribution. True False

  4.Essay-type questions

  e.g.How doesl angue differ from parole according to Saussure‘s view?

  11.Practical work

  这一部分试题所采取的形式均在每章后面的练习中出现过,如:

  Chapter Two: 6,9,10,12

  Chapter Three:2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,13,14,15

  Chapter Four:6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14

  Chapter Five:1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9

  Chapter Six:2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

  Chapter Seven.1,2,3,4,5,6,7

  三、教材

  An Introduction to English Linguistics 南京师范大学外文系文秋芳编写

  January 5,1990

江苏省教育考试院

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