Chapter II The Neoclassical Period
1. 识记Definitions of literary terms
1） The Enlightenment Movement
The 18th-century England is known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason. The Enlightenment Movement was a progressive intellectual movement which flourished in France & swept through the whole Western Europe at the time. The movement was a furtherance of the Renaissance of the 15th & 16th centuries. Its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modem philosophical & artistic ideas. The enlighteners celebrated reason or rationality， equality & science. They called for a reference to order， reason & rules & advocated universal education. Famous among the great enlighteners in England were those great writers like John Dryden， Alexander pope & so on.
In the field of literature， the Enlightenment Movement brought about a revival of interest in the old classical works. This tendency is known as neoclassicism. According to the neoclassicists， all forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek & Roman writers （Homer， Virgil， & so on）& those of the contemporary French ones. They believed that the artistic ideals should be order， logic， restrained emotion & accuracy， & that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity. This belief led them to seek proportion， unity， harmony & grace in literary expressions， in an effort to delight， instruct & correct human beings， primarily as social animals. Thus， a polite， urbane， witty， & intellectual art developed.
3） The heroic couplet
It means a pair of lines of a type once common in English poetry， which rhyme & are written with five beats each……
4） the Realistic Novel
The mid-century was， however， predominated by a newly rising literary form， the modern English novel， which， contrary to the traditional romance of aristocrats， gives a realistic presentation of life of the common English people. This-the most significant phenomenon in the history of the development of English literature in the eighteenth century - is a natural product of the Industrial Revolution & a symbol of the growing importance & strength of the English of the growing importance & strength of the English middle class， Among the pioneers were Daniel Defoe ，Samuel Richardson， Henry Fielding， Laurence Sterne， Tobias Creorge Smollott， & Oliver Goldsmith.
2. 领会Characteristics of Neoclassical Literature
According to the neoclassicists， all forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek & Roman writers （Homer， Virgil， Horace， Ovid， etc，）& those of the contemporary French ones. Neoclassicists had some fixed laws &rules for almost every genre of literature， prose should be precise， direct， smooth & flexible. Poetry should be lyrical， epical， didactic， satiric or dramatic， & each class should be guided by its own principles. Drama should be written in the Heroic Couplets （iambic pentameter rhymed in two lines）； the three unities of time， space & action should be strictly observed； regularity in construction should be adhered to & type characters rather than individuals should be represented.
I. John Bunyan
1. 一般识记His life
English author & preacher， born in Elstow， England， probably Nov.28， 1628，and died in London， England， Aug， 31， 1688.
2. 识记His major works
John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress （1678） is the outstanding 17th-century English religious literature. For more than 200 years this book was second in popularity only to the Bible. Bunyan did not attempt to portray the political confusion & social upheaval of 17th-century England. His concern was rather the study of man’s spiritual life.
Bunyan chiefly wrote four prose works - Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners （1666）， The Life & Death of Mr. Badman （1680）， The Holy War （1682） & The Pilgrim’s Progress， part II （1684）。
3. 领会Characteristics of his works
Bunyan’s style was modeled after that of the English Bible. With his concrete &living language & carefully observed & vividly presented details， he made it possible for the reader of the least education to share the pleasure of reading his novel & to relive the experience of his characters.
4. 应用Selected Reading
"The Vanity Fair"， an excerpt from Part I of The Pilgrim’s Progress.
（1） Theme： The Pilgrim’s Progress is the most successful religious allegory in the English language. Its purpose is to urge people to comply with Christian doctrines & seek salvation through constant struggles with their own weakness & all kinds of social evils. It is not only about something spiritual but also beats much relevance to the time. Its predominant metaphor-life as a journey-is simple & familiar.
（2） "Vanity Fair" is the most famous part of The Pilgrim’s Progress. It tells how Christian & his friend Faithful come to Vanity Fair on their way to heaven，" a fair where in should be sold all sorts of vanity & that it should last all the year long： therefore at this fair all such merchandise sold， as houses， lands， trades， places， honors， preferments， titles， countries， kingdoms， lusts， pleasures & delights of all sorts as harlots， wives， husbands， children， masters， servants， lives， blood， bodies， souls， silver， gold， pearls， precious stones & what not." As they refuse to buy anything but truth， they are beaten & put in a cage & then taken out & led in chains up & down the fair. They are sentenced to death-to be put to the most cruel death that can be invented." Vanity Fair" is a satirical picture of English society， law & religion in Bunyan’s day.