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自考《英语词汇学》复习资料第七章

2006-09-14 18:26   【 】【我要纠错

  第七章

  Vocabulary is the most unstable element of a language as it is under-going constant changes both in form and content.

  The content is even more unstable than the forms.

  Word-meaning changes by modes if extension, narrowing, degradation, elevation and transfer. of these, extension and narrowing are by far the most common.

  1.Extension (generalization)——is a term referring to the widening of meaning. It is a process by which a word, which originally had a specialized meaning, has now become generalized.

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Manuscript handwriting any author’s writing whether written by hand or typed

  with a type-writer or a word-processor

  Fabulous resembling a fable incredible, marvelous

  Barn a place for storing only barley storeroom

  Picture painting include “drawings” and even “photographs”。

  Mill place for grinding into flour place where things are made

  Journal daily paper periodical

  Butcher one who kills goats one who kills animals

  Companion one who shares bread a company

  。 A large proportion of polysemic words of modern English have their meanings extended sometimes in the course of development. Some words are generalized to such an extent that they can mean almost anything.

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Thing a public assembly or a council anything

  Business, concern, condition, matter, article, circumstance

  。 Technical terms

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Alibi (a legal term) plea that the accused is not at the place excuse

  When the crime is committed

  Allergic (a medical term) too sensitive to medicine averse or disinclined to

  Feedback (computer term) response

  。 From proper nouns

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Lynch the Lynch’s Law kill without lawful trial

  Sandwish a gambler’s name to denote a kind of fast place or squeeze between

  Food

  Vandal a member of an East Germanic tribe malicious destruction of a thing

  A person of such behaviour

  V. vandalize

  Adj. Vandalic/vandalistic

  n. vandalization/vandalism

  2. Narrowing (specialization) ——is a term referring to the shrinking of meaning. It is a process by which a word of wide meaning acquires a narrower or specialized sense.

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Deer animal

  Corn grain maize

  Garage any safe place a place for storing cars

  Liquor liquid alcoholic drink

  Disease discomfort illness

  Poison drink poisonous drink

  Wife woman a married woman

  Accident event unfortunate event

  Girl young person of either sex female young person

  。 Turn into a proper nouns

  The City business center of London

  The Peninsula Iberian Peninsula

  The Prophet Mohammed

  。 For economy, some phrases are shortened and only one element of the original is left to retain the meaning of the whole.

  e.g. a private = a private solider

  a general = a general officer

  an editorial = an editorial article

  。 Material nouns

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Silver silver dollars

  Glass cup-like container or mirror

  Iron device for smoothing clothes

  3.Elevation or amelioration——refers to the process by which words rise from humble beginnings to positions of importance.

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Nice ignorant —— foolish delightful, pleasant

  Marshal / constable keeper of horses high-ranking army officer / policemen

  Angle messenger messenger of God

  Knight servant rank below baronet

  Earl men count

  Governor pilot head of a state

  Fond foolish affectionate

  Minister servant head of ministry

  Shrewd evil, wickedness smart

  Nimble be good at taking things without permission smart

  Chamberlain servant high official of royal courts

  Success result

  4. Degradation or pejoration of meaning ——It is a process whereby words of good origin fall into ill reputation or non-affective words come to be used in derogatory sense.

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Boor peasant rude, ill-mannered person

  Churl peasant / free man uncultivated or mean person

  Wench country girl prostitute

  Hussy housewife woman of low morals

  Villain person who worked in a villa evil or wicked person or scoundrel

  Silly happy foolish

  Knave boy dishonest person

  Lewd ignorant lecherous

  Criticize appraise find fault with

  Lust pleasure sexual desire

  5. Transfer —— words which were used to designate on thing but later changed to mean something else.

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Paper an African plant papyrus

  。 Associated transfer

  E.g. the lip of a wound

  The tongue of a bell

  The nose of a plane

  Purse for money, dish for food, glass for cup

  。 Between abstract and concrete meaning

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Aftermath second crop of grass after mowing consequence, result

  Hope e.g. Clinton is the hope of the family.

  。 Between subject and objective meaning

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Pitiful full of pity deserving pity

  Dreadful / hateful subject meaning objective meaning

  Fearful/ doubtful / suspicious subject and objective meaning

  。 Transfer of sensations

  E.g. clear-sounding (from sight to hearing)

  Loud colours (from hearing to sight)

  Sweet music (from taste to hearing)

  6. Extra-linguistic Factors

  1. Historical reason

  。 A word is retained for a name though the meaning has changed because the reference has changed.

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Pen feather

  Car two-wheel cart drown by horses and used automobile

  in war

  Computer person who computes electronic machine

  。 Increased scientific knowledge and discovery are also important factors

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Sun the luminous heavenly body-one of the star around which the earth and other planets revolve

  seven planets revolving around the earth

  Atom any of the indivisible particles not the smallest and can be divided into even smaller

  particles

  2. Class reason. Language is just like a mirror, reflecting everything that exists in human society. It records the speech and attitude of different social classes. As a result, different social varieties of language have come into being.

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Churl, hussy, wench, villain ill-mannered or bad people

  Democracy, revolution, liberalism, human rights, communism different meaning in different societies and to different

  People

  3. Psychological reason. The associated transfer of meaning and euphemistic use of words are often due to psychological factors. people change word-meaning owing to various psychological. Religious influence is another kind psychological need.

  Word old meaning now meaning

  Copperhead a venomous snake

  7. Linguistic factors

  1. Shortening

  Gold for gold medal

  Gas for coal gas

  Bulb for light bulb

  Private for private solider

  2. Borrowing

  Deer / animal / beast

  Pig / pork, sheep / mutton, cattle / beef

  Bird / fowl, dog / hound, boy / knave, chair / stool

  3. Analogy

  Fortuitous happening by chance, accident fortunate

  Fruition a pleasure obtaining from using or possessing something

  词汇学并不是很难过,至少是比较死的东西,背背书就可以了。但要是想pass的话,整本书看是芍药看过三遍。否则不可能过的。

  看书的过程中会有新的知识点出现,千万不要漏记哦!

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