I. Complete the following statement or passage with proper expressions. （每题1分，共10分）
1. Archaisms are words no longer in _________ use or _______ in use.
2. A word whose meaning was borrowed from another language is called _________.
3. The Indo - European language is made up of most of the languages of _____； _______； _____.
4. A bound root is that part of the word that carries the _______ meaning just like a ________. In English， bound roots are either _______ or _________.
5. Affixes are forms that are ________ to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. We can put them into two groups： ________ and ________.
6. The expansion of vocabulary in modern English depends chiefly on ______. The most productive are _________， ________ and ________.
7. A compound is a unit consisting of more than one stem and functioning both ________ and ______ as a single word.
8. When a word is first coined， it is always ______. But in the course of development， the same symbol must be used to express more meanings， the result is ________.
9. Synonyms can be defined as one of two or more words in the English language which have the same or very nearly the same _______ meaning.
10. Synonyms can be classified into two major groups： ________ and _________.
II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. （每题1分，共10分）
1. Old English was a highly inflected language. （ ）
2. Modern English is considered to be an analytic language. （ ）
3. The most important mode of vocabulary development in present - day English is creation of new words by means of word formation. （ ）
4. Middle English absorbed a tremendous number of foreign words but with little change in word endings. （ ）
5. The meaning of a compound is usually the combination of the stems. （ ）
6. A compound functions as a single grammatical unit， so the internal structure can not be changed. （ ）
7. Such words as the poorer， the departed， a Republican are all examples of partial conversion. （ ）
8. Words mainly involved in conversion are nouns， verbs and adverbs. （ ）
9. Semantic unity and structural stability are general features of idioms， but there are many exceptions. （ ）
10. Idioms are characterized by terseness， expressiveness and vividness. （ ）
III. Fill in each bland with a word contrary in meaning to the word given in the bracket. （每题2分，共20分）
1. Beads and shells are ________ forms of money. （modern）
2. I have finished all the exercises， I am ______ done. （partly）
3. On a humid day， there is a lot of ________ in the air. （dryness）
4. Mosquitoes won't bite just anyone. They look for someone ________. （ordinary）
5. If you want to drive， it is ______ to have a driver's license. （unnecessary）
6. There is a great _____ in our political beliefs. We agree on most things. （difference）
7. The man said， "I am ________. I didn't do it！" （guilty）
8. The soldier stood in a ______ position while the general walked past him. （relaxed）
9. You will have to ______ the string in order to open the box. （tighten）
10. No one lives in that ______ house. （inhabited）
IV. Explain the following terms： （每题5分，共20分）
V. Fill in the blanks with the following verbal phrases in their suitable forms： （每题1分，共20分）
take on； break into； bite into ； go about； let out； draw up； set down； hold on to； bring up； make out； dry up； put out； live through； set off； call for； tear apart； buy off； build in； count on； sink in
1. 1848 was a year of revolution in Europe； Karl Marx and Frederick Engels published the Communist Manifesto， and political demonstration ______ the great cities of Paris， Vienna， Naples and Berlin.
2. With liberal doses of calomel， rhubarb and castor oil， he slowly improved， and after three weeks， he ______ his trousers and was eager to escape from his bed.
3. He travelled to foundling homes， prisons and lunatic asylums in his search for people.
4. We ________ at top speed through the narrow streets of Hiroshima.
5. I was just about to make my little bow of assent， when the meaning of these last words _______， jolting me out of my sad reverie.
6. No one talks about it any more， and no one wants to， especially， the people who were born here or who ______ it.
7. During dinner Mr. Churchill said that a German attack on Russia was now certain， and he thought that Hitler was ______ enlisting capitalist and Right Wing sympathies in this country and the U. S. A.
8. My husband and I find strong smoke offensive. Would you kindly _______ that _______？
9. Assuming the hotel man was ______， their only chance - a slim one - lay in removing the car quickly.
10. When railroads began ______ the demand for steamboat pilots and the Civil War halted commerce， Mark Twain left the country.
11. By the time the trial began on July 10， our town of 1500 people had _______ a circus.
12. Among them was John Butler， who had _______ the anti - evolution law.
13. Then the court ______ a storm of applause that surpassed that for Bryan.
14. The first - and essential - step in the study of any language is observing and ______ precisely what happens when native speakers speak it.
15. By 1976， the slump had begun to _______ the bulk - carrier trade.
16. The key tactic behind its strategy of _______ the richest slice of the trade has been to move up - market - to go where the Third World cannot follow into high - technology investment.
17. Sailors and officers ______ their chores as usual on these ships， amid piping and loudspeaker squawks.
18. Mr. Hopkins has _______ your name. He appears impressed， and the President too， by your expertise on landing craft and so forth.
19. He _________ a Southern war whoop. In a flash， John， Mckean and Franklin crowded around him.
20. Mr. Jefferson， I can't quite ________ what it is you're talking about.
VI. Questions and answers： （每题10分，共20分）
1. What is extra - linguistic context？
2. What is back - formation？