1. common； obsolete.
2. semantic loan.
3. European； the Near East； India.
4. fundamental； free root； Latin； Greek.
5. attached； inflectional； derivational.
6. word - formation； affixation， compounding； conversion.
7. grammatically； semantically.
8. monosemic； polysemy.
10. absolute synonyms； relative synonyms
1. old - fashioned
1. The definition of a word comprises the following points： （1） a minimal free form of a language； （2） a sound unity； （3） a unit of meaning； （4） a form that can function alone in a sentence. Therefore， a word is a minimal free form of a language that has a given sound and meaning and syntactic function.
2. Affixes are forms that are attached to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. Almost all affixes are bound morphemes because few can be used as independent words. According to the function of affixes， we can put them into two groups： inflectional and derivational affixes. Affixes attached to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are inflectional， thus known as inflectional morphemes. Derivational affixes are affixes added to other morphemes to create new words. Derivational affixes can be further divided into prefixes and suffixes. Prefixes come before the word and the suffixes after the word.
3. Concept， which is beyond language is the result of human cognition， reflecting the objective world in the human mind， It is universal to all men alike regardless of culture， restricted to language use. Therefore， a concept can have as many referring expressions as there are languages in the world.
4. Hyponymy deals with the relationship of semantic inclusion. That is， the meaning of a more specific word is included in that of another more general word. These words are known as hyponyms. For instance， tulip and rose are hyponyms of flower， the general word flower is the superordinate terms and the more specific ones tulip， rose are the subordinate terms. Hyponymy can be described in terms of tree - like graphs， with higher - order superordinates above the lower subordinates. But their status either as superordinate or subordinate is relative to other terms.
1. tore apart
2. called for
3. built up
4. set off
5. sand in
6. lived through
7. counting on
8. put out
9. bought off
10. drying up
11. taken on
12. drawn up
13. broke into
14. setting down
15. bite into
16. holding on to
17. went about
18. brought up
19. let out
20. make out
1. When we talk about context， we usually think of linguistic context， hardly aware of the non - linguistic situation， which can often exercise greater influence on the meaning of words than we realize. The extra - linguistic context may extend to embrace the entire cultural background， which may also affect the meaning of words. Take the term trade union for example. In western counties， a trade union is an "organization of workers， in a particular trade or profession， for，ed to represent their interests and deal as a group with employers." Against this cultural background， trade unions have strong political overtones. The organizations， which are established purposefully in opposition to the management， are expected to stage constant struggle against the management， are expected to say， shorter working hours， better working conditions and higher pay. The trade union leaders assume considerable power and have different duties and responsibilities. In China， however， the term has quite a different meaning. It is simply an organisation of masses under the leadership of the Party in each working unit， chiefly concerning the benefits of its members. There is no such thing as negotiation between the unions and management for higher pay or shorter working hours though unions are well in the position to make suggestions.
2. Back - formation is considered to be the opposite process of suffixation. Suffixation is the formation of new words by adding suffixes to bases， and back - formation is the method of creating words by removing the supposed suffixes. Back - formation usually involves the following types of words： abstract nouns； human nouns； compound nouns and others； adjectives. Words created through back - formation are mostly verbs. There are only a few that can be used as nouns or as both nouns and verbs. Stylistically， back - formed words are largely informal and some of them have not gained public acceptance.