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自考“高级英语”学习指导(6)

2007-02-13 16:58   【 】【我要纠错

  解答:选C.

  这是一道主旨题,要求我们归纳文章的中心思想。速读全文后,我们就会发现D根本不是本文思想,应首先排除。B与原文的意思不符合。原文第三段第一句讲到美国一直有种族歧视问题,但没有说这是美国最严重的问题。A是本文第一段第一句的原话,但不足以概括全文的中心思想。而文章的第五段强调美国所有的种族都为建设美国做出了贡献,体现了文章的中心思想,所以C为正确答案。

  (二)事实、细节题

  这类问题要求考生找出例证、原因、时间和其它有关的细节或具体的数据等。细节题出题类型主要有以下几种:

  1. According to the author, it is true that …

  2. According to the passage, who (what, where, when)…… ?

  3. How many (much)…… in this article?

  4. In what way…… ?

  5. In what year…… ?

  6. What do we know about…… ?

  7. Why is (are)…… ?

  例如:

  Fear and its companion pain are two of the most useful things that men and animals possess, if they are proper1y used. If fire did not hurt when it burnt, children would p1ay it until their hands were burnt away. Similarly, if pain existed but fear did not, a child would burn itself again and again, because fear would not warn it to keep away from the fire that had burn it before. A real1y fearless soldier —— and some do exist —— is not a good soldier because he is soon killed; and a dead soldier is of no use to his army. Fear and pain are therefore two guards without which men and animals might and die out.

  In our first sentence we suggested that fear ought to be proper1y used. If, for example, you never go out of your house because of the danger of being knocked down and killed in the street by a car, you are letting fear rule you too much. Even in your house you are not absolutely safe: an airplane may crash on your house, or ants may eat away some of the beams in your roof so that the latter falls on you, or you may get cancer!

  The important thing is not to let fear rule you, but instead to use fear as your servant and guide. Fear will warn you of dangers; then you have to decide what action to take.

  In many cases, you can take quick and successful action to avoid the danger. For example, you see a car coming straight towards you; fear warns you, you jump out of the way, and all is well.

  In some cases, however, you decide that there is nothing that you can do to avoid the danger. For examp1e, you cannot prevent an airplane crashing onto your house. In this case, fear has given you its warning; you have examined it and decided on your course, of action, so fear of this particular danger is no longer of any use to you, and you have to try to overcome it.

  Question: Children wou1d p1ay with fire until their hands were burnt away if ______.

  A. they were given no warning beforehand

  B. they had never burnt themselves

  C. they had no sense of pain

  D. they were fearful of the fire

  解答:选C.

  本题是问文章中的一个细节。根据第一段的第二句话:“If fire did not hurt when it burnt,…”可以判断C项为正确答案。

  (三)推断、引申题

  该题形难度较大,要求考生在理解原文的基础上,根据文章中所阐述的事实细节和上下文的暗示与线索进行综合分析,然后做出推断或引申出合情合理的结论。

  这种题型的常用提问方式有:

  1) According to the article, many people may…。

  2) An inference which may (not) be made from the article is…

  3) In the paragraph following this one, we may expect the author to discuss…

  4) It can be concluded from the passage that…

  5) The paragraph preceding (following) this one may discuss…。

  6) The passage implies that…

  7) We can conclude (infer, see) from the article that…。

  8) What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?‘

  9) Where wou1d this paragraph most probab1y appear?

  10) Which of the following can (not) be inferred from the article?

  例如:

  Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a very complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as we1l as those of a myriad of services, including labor, transportation, and public–utility services. The interrelationships of al1 these prices make up the “system” of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything e1se.

  If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define “price”, many would rep1y that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words, that price is the money value of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. The definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the amount and qua1ity of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take p1ace and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that supply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms, return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total “package” being exchanged for the asked—for amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price.

  Question: The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses_______.

  A. unusual ways to advertise products

  B. types of payment plans for service

  C. theories about how products affect different levels of society

  D. how certain elements of price “package” influence its market value

  解答:选D.

  本题要求推断本文后续段落的段意。根据文章最后一句“…both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors…in order that they may evaluate a given price.”买卖双方都要了解所有价格体系的决定因素,以便对实际价格做出评估。后面的段落将按逻辑讨论这些要素,由此选择D为答案。

  (四)正误判断题

  通常询问文章中所述的事情是否真实,某种提法是否正确或文章(作者)是否提及某事。常见题形如下:

  1) All of the following are true except……

  2) The author (passage) does not tell us……

  3) The author mentions all of the items 1isted below except……

  4) Which of the following does not explain…… ?

  5) Which of the following is NOT listed as…… ?

  6) Which of the following is (not) mentioned in the article?

  7) Which of the following statements is (not) true?

  8) Which of the following statements is wrong according to the author?

  例如:

  How men first learnt to invent words is unknown; in other words, the origin of language is a mystery. All we really know is that men, unlike animals, somehow invented certain sounds to express thoughts and feelings, actions and things, so that they could communicate with each other; and that later they agreed upon certain signs, called letters, which could be combined to represent those sounds, and which could be written down. Those sounds, whether spoken or written in letters, we call words.

  The power of words, then, lies in their associations —— the things they bring up before our minds. Words become filled with meaning for us by experience; and the longer we live, the more certain words recall to us the glad and sad events of our past; and the more we read and 1earn, the more the number of words that mean something to us increases.

  Great writers are those who not only have great thoughts but a1so express these thoughts in words which appeal powerfully to our minds and emotions. This charming use of words is what we call literary style. Above all, the real poet is a master of words. He can convey his meaning in words which sing like music, and which by their position and association can move men to tears. We should therefore learn to choose our words carefully and use them accurately, or they wil1 make our speech silly and dull.

  Question: Which of the following statements about the real poet is NOT true?

  A. He is no more a master of words than an ordinary person.

  B. He can convey his ideas in words which sing like music.

  C. He can move men to tears.

  D. His style is a1ways charming.

  解答:选A.

  这是一道是非题,需要找出一个错误的选项。根据文章最后一段,B,C,D三个

  选项都是对的,必须排除。而A项说:一位真正的诗人并不比普通人能更好地掌握和运用

  词语。这一说法显然是不对的(NOT true about the real poet),正符合题意。 A项为正确答案。

本文转载链接:自考“高级英语”学习指导(6)

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