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自考“高级英语”学习指导(5)

2007-02-13 16:57   【 】【我要纠错

  阅读理解通常处理办法

  一、 看问题,再读文章

  做阅读理解时,可先看短文后的问题(不必看四个选项),弄清楚需要了解什么,然后带着问题阅读以达到明确目的。

  二、 略读关键段落,获取重要信息

  先将文章的首尾两段读一下,然后再快速找到并测览一下其它段落的段落主题句。这样做读者可以获得整篇文章的大概意思以及它的谋篇布局。掌握并熟练运用略读法可以使考生在尽可能短的时间内了解整篇文章的大概内容以及整体布局。这能帮助考生把测试题答案所依据的信息的大概位置快速确定下来。

  三、 充分利用信号词,查找信息

  英文中有很多种表示上下文之间逻辑关系的信号词。所谓信号词指在具体的段落中那些能够发出信号,预示读者将要读到的内容与上文存在什么样的关系或本身具有什么逻辑意思的一些词。

  比如: 1)however,but ,nevertheless 等词预示着后面的内容与前面的不同或相反;

  2) so…that…表示该句本身存在一种逻辑上的因果关系。 等等。

  掌握并关注这些词对解答诸如细节题、是非题就很有帮助。

  四、学会猜测词意、扫除阅读障碍

  虽然考生大多积累了一定的词汇量,甚至即使你记住大纲上所列的单词,在考试时仍不可避免地会或多或少地碰到一些生词。这些生词对于理解文章内容无疑是一大障碍,克服这一障碍的方法就是运用猜测词意法将该词大概的词义猜测出来,因为考试时是不允许查字典。掌握并熟练运用猜测词意法可使考生在阅读时越过生词这一障碍,更好地理解作者的思想观点。

  猜测词意所依据的线索可分为以下几类:

  1. 定义( definition)

  通过上下文给出的定义,考生可以将某些生词的意思猜测出来。使定义与被定义的内容之间建立起关系的词有: put it in another way,mean,in other words,that is,or,namely等等。

  2. 重述(restatement)

  所谓重述是指作者用另外的词,短语或句子将前面已述及的内容再重述一下。据重述内容,考生可将前面内容中的生词的意思猜测出来。

  3. 举例(examples)

  从such as,like,for example,for instance,等词后所列举的例子以及所表示的前后同位关系可以猜测出一些单词的词意。

  4. 对比(contrast)

  从表示对立或相反的信号词可以判断某些词语内容前后意思对立或相反。根据这一点,考生可以从其中一个词猜测出另外一个词的意思。

  关于这一点我们在后面还会进一步讲解。

  五、先易后难,逐个解题

  由于测试的短文难易程度各异,考生应根据自己的兴起、爱好或专业知识,先易后难答题。这样做可让考生保持良好的考场情绪,有利于考生正常发挥水平。

  做阅读理解应忌讳的方面

  一忌:不带问题阅读。费力、费时、效率低。

  二忌:草率行事。出题者有时故意出一道似是而非的题目,如果匆忙答题,很容易犯错。

  三忌:主观印象。有的考生爱根据自身的生活经历或常识来答题,而考试则是要根据原文

  旨意来选择答案。

  四忌:一叶障目。只见树木,不见森林。有的考生会被文章的个别内容、局部环节所迷惑,

  结果忽略了文章的全貌。

  五忌:忽略时间。前面耗时太多,后面时间不够用,结果影响成绩

  各种题型讲解

  一、选择题

  考核学生对短文的综合理解程度。考生根据短文内容勾出正确答案。

  常见题型有:

  1. 主旨大意题

  2. 事实、细节题

  3. 是非题

  4. 推理、引申题

  5. 作者观点和态度题

  (-)主旨大意题

  主旨题要求考生在阅读有关文章后能够概括出中心思想,确定段落大意或选定最佳标题。主旨题的常见提问方式有:

  1) From this passage, we learn that…

  2) The article was written to explain…

  3) The author mainly discusses…

  4) The best title for this passage is…。

  5) The central idea conveyed in the above passage is…

  6) The title that best expresses the main idea is…

  7) What does the passage mainly discuss?

  8) What is the main topic (theme, subject, point) of the passage?

  9) What would be the most appropriate title for this passage?

  10) Which of the following is the best title for this passage?

  11) Which sentence best summarizes the article?

  12) Which title suits this passage best?

  例如:

  The United States is a country made up of many different races. Usually they are mixed together and can‘t be told from one another. But many of them still talk about where their ancestors came from. It is something they are proud of.

  The original Americans, of course, were the Indians. The so-called white men who then came were mostly from England. But many came from other countries like Germany and France.

  One problem the United States has always had is discrimination. As new groups came to the United States they found they were discriminated against. First it was the Irish and Italians. Later it was the blacks. Almost every group has been able to finally escape this discrimination. The only immigrants who have not are the blacks. Surprisingly enough the worst discrimination today is shown towards the Indians.

  One reason the Indians are discriminated against is that they have tried so hard to keep their identity. Of course they are not the only ones who have done so. The Japanese have their Little Tokyo in Los Angeles and the Chinese a Chinatown in New York. The Dutch settlement in Pennsylvania also stays separate from other people. Their towns are like something from the 19th century. They have a different reason from the other groups for staying separately. They live separately for religious reasons rather than keep together in a racia1 group.

  Although some groups have kept themselves separate and others have been discriminated against, al1 groups have helped make the United States a great country. There is no group that has not helped in some way. And there is no group that can say they have done the most to make it a great country.

  Many people sti1l come from other countries to help the United States grow. A good example is the American project that let a man walk on the moon. It was a scientist from Germany who was most responsible for doing that. It is certain that in the future the United States wil1 still need the he1p of people from all racial groups to remain a great country.

  Question: Which of the following statements can best describe the main idea of this passage?

  A. The United States is a country made up of many different races.

  B. Discrimination is the most serious problem in the United States.

  C. All races in the United States have helped make the country a great one.

  D. The prosperity of the United States is mainly due to the hard work of the most discriminated races.

本文转载链接:自考“高级英语”学习指导(5)

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