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《英语写作基础》课程简介

2006-09-14 17:30   【 】【我要纠错

  一、《英语写作基础》课程简介

  《英语写作基础》是全国高等教育自学考试英语专业基础阶段(专科阶段)的一门重要的实践课程,本科程着重培养应考生英语写作的基本技能,重点教授英语写作的最基础内容。主要包括三大部分:句子的组成,段落的写作,概要及应用文写作。

  《英语写作基础》考核重点

  《英语写作基础》的考核目标和出题原则在《考试大纲》中有明确的阐述。但是根据历年考题看,考核重点有以下三点:

  1. 掌握句子,段落写作的基概念,基本理论和基本方法;

  2. 能写一般的书信、通知、便条以及请贴等,格式正确,语言得体,内容完整,条理清楚,语法基本正确;

  3. 写作速度每小时200—250词。

  《英语写作基础》备考方法

  1. 立足教材,基础领先

  《英语写作基础》是一门基础课,考查的重点也在于一些基础的知识。例如句子类型,常见错误,句式变化等。这些都是英语写作的基本概念和基本理论,考生要能够理解并准确地利用这些概念对一些写作问题做出正确的判断,进而增强自己的写作意识,提高自己的写作基础水平。这正是考试判断题,改错题,改写题等题型的考查对象。因此同学们第一步就要认真阅读教材。阅读教材时要认真研究其讲解部分和所列出的实例,尤其是中国学生容易出错的句子结构以及动名词搭配等。只有把教材的讲解部分和实例消化了,才能应对考试。另外段落写作中理论部分侧重比较多,主要有一致、连贯、结尾和发展段落等,这些理论比较抽象,不如改错等题目那样明显,需要认真阅读教材,确实理解这些基本概念,并且分析现成段落,认真体会,把理论和实际相结合,抓到各个概念的实质;同时还要牢记一些重要的,显现的特征,作为解答应用题,例如段落句子排序,寻找主题句,找出多余句子等题型。应用文写作要求格式和内容的统一,对格式的要求是十分严格的,这同样需要大家认真阅读教材,牢记各类应用文的写作格式。因此,大家要立足教材,夯实基础,搞懂教材所列实例和练习,并举一反三,牢固掌握。

  2. 重视句段,严守格式

  英语写作基础是为英语学习本科段的《英语写作》奠定基础的一门课程。因此,它侧重句子和段落,以及有严格形式的应用文写作。我们大家都知道,涉及到句子的语法称之为句法,主要涉及到句子的结构,句子的类型等。它在很大程度上是考查考生的语法知识,例如各、类句子错误,这需要大家要注意句子的基本知识,熟知各种类型的错误;一个语法上正确的句子,放到作文中可能就不合适,因为单个句子可能不适合整篇文章的语境,需要对句式进行调整,以适合段落的需要。因此,从修辞的角度,我们对句子进行了重新的划分,例如掉尾句、长句、短句等。这些新的写作术语,要求大家要彻底理解,以此作为解题的基础。段落不是句子的简单堆砌,需要各句子之间的连贯和衔接,这就需要大家掌握基本的段落概念。应用文写作在基础阶段就是段落写作加上严格的格式。因此大家要注意应用文写作,并严格遵循格式。

  3. 广泛阅读,勤写多改

  《英语写作基础》还需要考生增加阅读量。研究证明阅读和写作之间存在着不可分割的联系,应考生写作中出现的问题,大多和阅读量不够有直接关系,如语言不通顺,句子之间缺乏逻辑性,思路混乱,词性变化不正确等。要想避免这些方面的错误,一个好的方法就是多读书。读书时要勤于思考,要注意观察句子的结构,观察句与句之间的逻辑和联系,并把自己所学理论运用到阅读中,反复揣摩和体会,必会大有收获。适当地背诵范文也是很有益的学习写作的方法。说一千,道一万,写作归根到底还是要写文章。因此考生平时要勤学多练,多写多改。写作能力是在写作实践中获得的。经常动笔是英语写作能力质的飞跃的前提。另外考生还要养成反复修改草稿的良好习惯,可以自己改,也可以相互改。对自己草稿的修改中就会练习到修正病句,错句,删除对统一性和连贯性起到破坏作用的句子,剔除不合逻辑的内容等,实际上就是在练习所学内容,在进行考试练兵。所以考生应该多写多改。

  二、考试题型及分析

  高等教育自学考试《英语写作基础》考试满分100分,考试时间为150分钟。全部题目用英文做答。其形式相对固定。《英语写作基础自学考试大纲》的规定“本课程试卷采用的题型主要包括:判断题、改错题、改写题、概要写作、应用文写作等”。近几年的英语写作基础试卷在考查内容和试题类型上改动不大,保持了命题的连贯性。考查内容包括三大部分:句子的组成、段落的写作、应用文写作。题型有重写句子、改写病句、识别主题句、重新组合段落、识别与段落内容无关的句子、写信六种。具体如下:

  Ⅰ。 重写句子 (本大题共10小题,每小题1.5,共15分)

  Revise the following sentences according to the requirement

  Ⅱ。 改写病句 (本大题共3小题,每小题5分,共15分)

  III.标出主题句 (本大题共3小题,每小题5分,共15分)

  Select the topic sentence

  1. Choose the best topic sentence from the group below.

  2. Read the following paragraph carefully and underline the topic sentence.

  3. Read the following paragraph carefully and select the best topic sentence from the four possible answers that follow the paragraph

  IV. 重新组合段落(本大题共5小题,每小题1分,共5分)

  Rearrange the following numbered sentences so that they will read logically. Put the numbers in proper sequence in the boxes provided below.

  V. 标出与段落内容无关的句子(本大题共10分)

  Read the following paragraphs and cross out the irrelevant sentences.

  VI. 写信 (本大题共40分)

  You are planning to further your studies in a college or university. Write an application letter. In your letter, provide the necessary information about yourself, tell them you want to study math and find out about the possibility of receiving financial support. (150-200 words)

  VII. 写便条

  Write a note of invitation according the situation described. 写便条在《英语写作基础大纲》中虽然列出。但是该题型自2000年以来就没有考过。大家应该防患于未然,掌握各类便条的写法,尤其是便条的日期,署名,称谓等的格式。

  三、《英语写作写作基础》课程讲解

  考核内容主要集中在句子种类之间的转换,常见的错误结构,段落中的主题句,连贯性,应用文的书信写作几个部分。这里我们简单的复习一下这几部分里出现的术语、概念、和格式。

  (一)句子种类 (Types of Sentences)

  1. The Periodic Sentence 掉尾句

  中心意思出现在句尾的句子称为掉尾句。这种句子结构通常要比中心意思出现在句首、修饰语出现在句尾的结构效果更好。修饰语可以是词组(例如介词词组,分词词组等),状语从句(如条件状语从句,让步状语从句,地点状语从句等),也可以是其它结构(如不定式结构等)。大家在写作时,不妨注意掉尾句的使用。

  2.The Short and Long Sentences 长短句

  短句显得简练,有力量。但句子太短也会影响写作上的流畅性,解决这一问题的方法是利用连词,包括从属连词,将短句连接在一起。长句可以将比较复杂的逻辑思维表达清楚。短句长句要根据所表达的思想和内容结合使用,长短句的不断变化会给读者新奇感。

  3. The Simple Sentence  简单句:只有一个主谓结构的句子。

  4. The Compound Sentence 并列句:有两个和两个以上的简单句组合而成,通常由逗号加上并列连词(and, buy, for, or, nor, so, yet)连接。

  5. The Complex Sentence复杂句: 一个简单句加上由从属连词连接的另一个句子。从属连词就是指除并列连词之外的连词。

  6. The Compound- Complex sentence 并列复合句:一个或一个以上的简单句加上一个或一个以上的复合句。

  (二)常见结构错误 (Common Errors)

  1. Run-on sentence 串句:

  误将两个句子穿在一起的句子,有的用逗号隔开,有的标点都没有使用。修改串句有三种方法:1)将其分成两个句子; 2)用连词连接两个句子;3)用分号连接两个句子。

  2. Fragmentary Sentences 破句:

  破句是串句的另一个极端,即把句子的一部分当成是一个句子。任何句子都必须要有一个主语和谓语并且要表达一个完整的思想。如果缺少其中之一就会造成破句。每一种破句都可以用多种方法来更正。常见的破句有:1)从属连词引出的破句。从属连词例如after, unless, even(even though/even if), since, before, when,(whenever), because, if, who, while, as, which, although, though, so, where, until, that 等,不能单独引导独立的句子,它们引导的句子必须要依靠另一个主句。修改时,使其与前面或后面的句子相结合,使其从属于某一个主句。2)ing分词和不定式引起的破句。修改办法是将ing分词融合到相邻的句子中,或是为其加上一个主语,将ing变为动词的某种形式。3)增加细节引起的破句。这样的破句缺乏主语或是动词。经常以下面这些词引出:for example, also, except, such as, including, especially. 修改的办法就是给破句增加主语和动词。4)缺少主语引起的破句。改正办法是将破句和相邻的前句结合或是增加一个主语。

  3. Faulty parallelism 错误平行结构:

  平行结构是把两个或两个以上的意思并列的成分用同等的语法形式表达出来。如果意思上并列的成分用不同等的语法形式来表达,就破坏了平行结构。平行结构可以是单词、词组、从句、也可以是句子。这里要注意几个十分容易犯的错误。1)不要使用And who/and which 结构,如James Joyce‘s Ulysses, a long and complicated novel and which is on our reading list, has been banned by the school board. 2)一些成对连词如either   or; neither   or; not only    but also; both   and等要连接一致的语法成分。3) 再有就是than 和as 引导的比较句。要是比较的东西或是思想在逻辑上和语法上要一致。如The students in our school are more intelligent than your school. 错在逻辑上把the students 和your school进行了比较,应该添上than the students in your school或是than those in your school. 又如His learning is as extensive as Paul. 应该为as extensive as Paul’s.

  4 Misplaced Modifiers 错置修饰语

  错置修饰语指的是应为修饰语的位置不正确而导致的句子错误。例如 I nearly earned a hundred dollars last week. 这里是说你差点就赚了100美元还是你赚了差不多100美元呢?如果表达后者的意思就需要将nearly 放到a hundred dollars前面。改正的最好办法是让修饰语和被修饰词尽量靠近。

  5. Dangling modifiers 垂悬修饰语:

  即修饰语在句子中找不到逻辑上修饰的对象,这是中国学生经常犯的一种语法错误。常见的有一下五种:垂悬分词;垂悬动名词,垂悬不定式,垂悬介词,垂悬省略句。常用改进方法有两种,一是明确动作的实施者,使主语成为悬垂部分修饰的对象;二是将省略句或是分词词组扩展为从句。例如:

  错误After practicing for three hours, a large mug of beer was what the thirsty dancers wanted.

  。   正确 After practicing for three hours, the thirsty dancers wanted a large mug of beer.

  错误Watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  正确 While I was watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  (三)段落(The Paragraph)

  1. 主题句(The Topic Sentence)

  多数情况下主题句出现在段首,但也可以出现在段中或断尾。主题句是一个段落中最重要的句子,是段落的“纲”。它说明段落的中心思想和作者的写作目的。段落的其它句子必须与主题句密切相关,共同阐述、证实主题句。主题句主要有三个方面的功能:1)限制内容范围 主题句的作用是概括一个段落的中心意思,所以往往是一个表示一般概念的句子。范围太大或太小,都会使作者无法展开段落,必须通过某些限定性词语将内容限制到一定程度,因此主题句应包括主题和限定词。2)体现段落展开方向。主题句暗示段落可能展开的方向,涉及的内容以及作者的思路。3)预示段落展开的方法。主题句起着开宗明义、提纲挈领的作用,支持句都要围绕主题句展开。

  2. 统一性(Unity)

  即所写的文章紧扣主题。统一性要求作者切记文章的题目和写作目标,写出的句子都必须为中心思想服务。任何与该段落的中心思想相悖的句子,内容,无论其表达如何完美,都应该毫不吝惜的予以删除,以确保该段落的统一性。

  3. 连贯性(Coherence)

  连贯性和语言表达的形式相关。指的是一个句子能自然的过渡到下一个句子。既指句与句之间的联系,又指整个段落的组织。在一个段落中,句子与句子之间有一种自然的逻辑关系。段落中的每一个句子,都是前一个句子的某种逻辑归宿与承诺,从而使整个段落浑然一体。做到句与句之间连贯性较好,经常采用下面的几种方法。(1)使用代词 大部分代词是用来替代前面出现的名词的。写作中使用代词可以避免重复,使文章简洁。它们往往是前指的,也就是说,上下两个句子如果下句出现的代词是代指上句出现的名词。这样就为我们提供了两句间的先后关系和逻辑关系。(2)重复核心词和短语  词汇手段也是达到段落连贯性的手段之一。经常重复核心词和短语,使读者注意到文章的中心所在。这里重复的词汇可能是以多种形式出现的。(3)正确使用过渡词 正确使用关联词可以大大提高段落的连贯性。像是first, second, next, for example 等连接词,它们就像路标一样指引读者沿着作者的思路顺利阅读下去。

  (四)应用文写作 (Practical Writing)

  应用文是一种特殊的文体,它的行文格式和措辞用字各具特点,与中文应用文的写法有很大的区别。通过对本章的学习,考生应该掌握应用文写作技巧,同时应将写句子和段落的技巧融合在应用文写作之中,最终写出格式正确、用词得当、表达得体的应用文来。应用文写作主要有便条(Notes),信件(Letters),个人简历(Resume)。这里着重讲解一下信件的写法。

  1. 便条(Notes)

  便条的写作相对来说比较简单,重要的是格式,尤其要注意邀请类,预约类和道歉类便条的写法。写便条时要注意一下几点:1)如果想签署写便条的日期,应该写在右上角。2)如果需要别人的回执,在左下角写上R.S.V. P. 3) 邀请类便条中有些是十分正式的邀请卡的写法,它是打印的,要求较高。4)写作要注意写作对象,区分语言的正式与非正式形式。5)地点和时间的顺序是先地点后时间,时间遵循星期+月份+日子+小时+分钟。例如:一个便条是2月28日上午9时40分写的,英语格式应该为:Sat. Feb. 28. 9:40 a.m. 当然这只是理论上的可能,实际生活中便条的日期写到几号就行了,如Sat. Feb.28,或者只写月日Feb.28.6) 要注意一些省略词,例如月份,R.S.V. P.等。

  了解了便条写作的格式,再就是内容。审题要仔细,划出便条内容要点,这些要点在便条中是缺一不可的。然后要分清便条的种类,要学会一些表达邀请,预约和道歉的英语常用表达句式。这些可以通过阅读课文例子获得。最后将形式和内容相结合写出便条。

  2.Letters 信件的写法

  1)信件的格式

  a. 信头(Heading)

  信头指的是写信人的详细地址和写信日期,一般写在第一页的左上角。如果所用信纸上印有,就可以省略;私人信件往往只写日期。信头地址单位要从小到大排列,一定要写邮政编码。要留出约3厘米的边距。

  b. 信内地址(The inside address)

  信内地址指的是收信人的详细地址,位置在左边称谓的上方。

  c. 称谓(The salutation)

  称谓是对收信人的称呼,和他打招呼。它在信内地址下空两行。称谓后跟逗号(美国)或是冒号(英国)。私人信件一般用Dear +姓的格式。商业信件比较正式,一般用Dear +Mr./Mrs./Ms./Miss+名的形式,如Dear Mr. Hamilton: 这里要注意Mr.的复数形式是Messrs, Mrs.的复数形式是Mmes. 如果收件人不明确,可以用Dear colleague, Dear Sir/Dear Madam/ Dear Sir or Madam: To whomever it may concern: 只用于推荐信和证明书。

  d. 正文 (The body)

  正文是信件的主体部分,指的是正文的段落。有两种形式,齐头式和缩进式。齐头式比较常用,段内行距为一空格,段落间行距为两空格。

  f. 结束语 (Complimentary close)

  结束语的表达很多,要根据和收信人的关系来确定。商务信件常用结束语有:Sincerely yours, Sincerely, Cordially yours, Yours sincerely, Yours truly, Yours cordially, Very truly yours, 私人信件常用结束语有:Love, Yours, As ever, Fondly, Sincerely, Affectionately, With love, Yours with love, Best wishes, With Best wishes, Yours truly, Sincerely yours, Yours sincerely. 第一个字母要大写,后面用逗号。位置在左边,正文最后一行后空两行。

  g. 签名(Signature)

  私人信件比较随便,视人际关系而定。商务信件签名必须是全名(手写),底下是打印全名。信内附件,写上“Enclosure”或是“Encl.”位置在左边签名的下方,中间空一行。附言用P.S表示,位置在左边,签名下方空两行。

  h. 信封(The Envelope) 写信人地址在左上角,收信人地址在中间。

  2)信件的种类

  a. 求职信 (Application Letter)

  第一段往往是引出写信者如何获得的职位信息,例如报纸广告,电视,网络等媒体。然后表示自己的兴趣,并表示自己这一职位。

  第二段介绍自己的情况,并结合职位要求来介绍一下自己的经历和技能。

  结尾,表达感谢,盼望面试机会,附带简历,留下联系方式。

  b. 求学信 (Application For a College)

  第一段表达对申请学习某一专业的兴趣,然后说明写信目的,是了解入学要求,还是课程。

  第二段私人信息。和自己所申请专业相关的学习和工作经历。附带简历备查等。

  结尾,表达感谢,期盼回信。

  c. 邀请信 (Invitation Letter)

  第一段,几句赞扬被邀请人的话。代表某一单位,向某人发出正式邀请。

  第二段,有关邀请事项的细节安排。活动时间,地点,流程,以及受邀请人的旅费问题。

  结尾,期盼回复,表达希望受邀人到达的愿望,附件日程安排等。

  4. 感谢信(Thanks)

  第一段,表达感谢,感谢事由。

  第二段,回顾共同渡过的时光,经历的事情,表达高兴,和对他人帮助的感激。

  结尾,再次表达谢意,祝福收信人及家人,表达再次相见的愿望。

  5. 抱怨信(Complaints)

  第一段,表达写信目的,产品购买时间及其问题。

  第二段,表达产品质量问题的详细情况和所做的咨询、维修等相关事情。表达虽经努力仍然无法使用的状况。提出你的明确要求,退货还是其它。

  结尾,期待回复,解决问题。

  6. 祝贺信 (congratulations)

  第一段,表达祝贺,祝贺的事由。

  第二段,较为详细的对事由的描写,表达继续合作的意向。

  第三段,祝福的话。

  四、各题型解题思路和技巧

  下面我们将按题型顺序,以考试题为例题,理出试题考试的考核知识点与解题思路。同时,也将对考生答题中的典型错误做出剖析,希望大家能够以此为例,举一反三,熟练掌握基本写作术语的概念,增加解题经验,取得较好的成绩

  I. 重写句子(本大题共10小题,每小题1.5分,共15分)

  1.考查loose sentence 与periodic sentence之间的转换。

  例题:

  1. I felt like taking a walk after watching the sunset. (Periodic sentence)

  2. While they were waiting in line for the concert tickets, the rain stopped. (Loose sentence)

  答案:

  1. After watching the sunset, I felt like taking a walk.

  2. The rain stopped while they were waiting in line for the concert tickets.

  解题思路:(1)明确两种句型的特点:就语义结构而论,periodic sentence(掉尾句)中主要信息在后,次要信息在前,使句子的重心置于句尾,旨在造成悬念,引人入胜;而loose sentence(松散句)则正相反,将句义重心放在句首,使主要信息一目了然。就语法结构而言,periodic sentence(掉尾句)将句子成分中的修饰部分放在主要成分(一般为主谓结构)之前;而loose sentence(松散句)则反之。 (2) 第一题原句主要信息为 I felt like taking a walk,放在次要信息After watching the sunset之前,原句是loose sentence(松散句),变换句型只要将主次信息换位即可。第二题原句的主要信息为the rain stopped,次要信息为while they were waiting in line for the concert tickets,原句是periodic sentence(掉尾句),变换成loose sentence(松散句),需主次信息换位。

  2.考查将两个独立短句合并成一个simple sentence的能力。

  例题:

  1. The letter is from my foreign friend. The letter arrived today. (Simple sentence)

  2. My roommate was waiting for me at the door. He had a book in his hand. (Simple sentence)

  答案:

  1. The letter from my foreign friend arrived today.

  2. My roommate with a book in his hand was waiting for me at the door.

  解题思路:(1)明确simple sentence(简单句)的构成:simple sentence(简单句)包含一个主语+谓语动词(S+V)的结构。(2)将两个短句的共同主语作为合并后的simple sentence(简单句)的主语,并将其中包含主要信息的短句的谓语动词确立为simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词,另一短句转化为修饰成分。(3)第1题原句中第一个短句为次要信息,介词短语from my foreign friend可作为修饰成分。第1题原句中,第一个短句包含主要信息,其谓语动词was waiting可作为合并后的simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词,第二个短句He had a book in his hand,可转化为with引导的介词短语结构,作修饰成分。

  典型错误

  The letter which arrived today is from my foreign friend. 这个句子错误有二:一、未将原句中包含主要信息的短句的谓语动词arrived作为合并后的simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词;二、含有定语从句的句子不是simple sentence(简单句),而是complex sentence(复合句)。还有The letter arrived today is from my foreign friend. 这是一个病句,句中出现两个没有合适方式连接的谓语动词,根本不符合语法规则。 再如My roommate, who had a book in his hand, was waiting for me at the door. 此句中who had a book in his hand是定语从句,而simple sentence(简单句)中不能含有从句。

  3.考查独立短句与compound sentence之间的转换

  例题:

  1. Jerry is a good student. He studies hard and grasps concepts well. (compound sentence)

  2. We could take a taxi. We could walk to the restaurant. (compound sentence)

  3. I needed butter to make the cookie better. I couldn‘t find any. I used vegetable oil instead. (compound sentence)

  答案:

  1. Jerry is a good student, for he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

  2. We could take a taxi orwe could walk to the restaurant.

  3. I needed butter to make the cookie better, but I couldn‘t find any, so I used vegetable oil instead.

  解题思路:(1)明确compound sentence(并列句)的特点:compound sentence(并列句)是由并列连词或特定的标点符号将意义相关、结构完整的两个或两个以上的simple sentence(简单句)连接起来构成的。(2)理顺独立短句间逻辑关系:是承递、转折、选择、还是因果?确定好后在并列连接词and, nor, but, yet, or, for, so之中选一个出来连接各分句。(3) 第1题中,两分句间的关系为前因后果,所以选择for引出解释原因的分句。第2题中,两分句为选择关系,可用or连接。第3题较为复杂,前两个分句是转折关系,可用but或yet连接;它们又与第三个分句形成前因后果的关系,所以选择so引出结果。

  典型错误

  (错误)Jerry is a good student for he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

  (分析)用for引导表示原因的分句时,它前面一定要用comma(逗号)。

  (错误)For Jerry is a good student, he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

  (分析)除了因果关系不妥外,for的位置也不正确。用for连接两个简单句时,前句表示结果或结论,后句说明产生前述结果的原因,所以for只能出现在后句中。

  (错误)We could take a taxi or walk to the restaurant.

  (分析)此句仍是一个simple sentence(简单句)而不是compound sentence(并列句),compound sentence(并列句)必须包含两个或两个以上的simple sentence(简单句)

  4.考查compound sentence与complex sentence之间的转换

  例题:

  1. The tape recorder was not working right, so I returned it to the store. (complex sentence)

  答案:

  1. Because the tape recorder was not working right, I returned it to the store.

  解题思路:(1)了解complex sentence(复合句)的构成:complex sentence(复合句)包含一个主句及一个或多个从句。从句分为名词性从句、形容词性从句和副词性从句。(2)第4题原句是compound sentence(并列句),两个分句为因果关系,要把compound sentence(并列句)重写成complex sentence(复合句)时,只需将第一个分句改为由从属连接词because引导的原因状语从句即可。

  典型错误:

  (错误)I returned the tape recorder to the store, for it was not working right.

  (分析)for虽然也可引导表示原因的分句,但它是并列连接词,用在compound sentence(并列句)中,这点与because、as、since等引导原因状语从句的从属连接词不同。

  5.考查对compound-complex sentence的掌握和运用。

  例题:

  1. If you want me to clean your windows, please give me a week‘s notice. I am very busy this month. (compound-complex sentence)

  答案:

  1. If you want me to clean your windows, please give me a week‘s notice, for I am very busy this month.

  解题思路:

  (1)了解compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)的构成:顾名思义,compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)是由复合句并列而形成的。具体地说,compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)可以是一个简单句与一个主从复合句用并列连接词连接起来的,也可以是两个主从复合句的并列。(2)第1题原句中的第一个句子是含有条件状语从句的主从复合句,第一句与第二句是前因后果的关系,将两句话用并列连接词for连接起来,即可合并为一个compound - complex sentence(并列复合句)。

  典型错误:

  (错误)Please give me a week‘s notice if you want me to clean your windows, because I am very busy this month.

  (分析)此句仍是complex sentence(复合句),因为because为从属连接词。在表示原因的连接词中,只有for是并列连接词,用于连接两个具有并列关系的分句。阅卷中发现,相当多的考生没有掌握好连接词for的用法。

  6. 考核知识点:考查对parallel structure概念的掌握和运用

  例题:

  1. Minnie bought a ticket to the play. She went out for dinner. She arrived at the theater by 8:00. (Parallel structure)

  答案:

  1. Minnie bought a ticket to the play, went out for dinner, and arrived at the theater by 8:00.

  解题思路:

  (1)明确parallel structure(平行结构)的特点:parallel structure(平行结构)是把两个或两个以上意思并列的成分用同等的语法形式表示出来。平行的结构可以是单词、词组、从句,也可以是句子。(2)第1题原有的三个短句中,主语均为Minnie,谓语动词bought、went out、及arrived是意思并列的成分,可以成为平行结构。

  典型错误:

  (错误)Minnie bought a ticket to the play, arrived at the theater by 8:00, and went out for dinner.

  (分析)Minnie买票、外出吃饭、到达剧院是按照时间顺序先后发生的,次序不能随意更改。

  (错误)Minnie bought a ticket to the play, went out for dinner, then arrived at the theater by 8:00.

  (分析)then不是并列连接词,不能取代and.

  II.改写病句(本大题共5小题,每小题3分,共15分)

  1. 考查对连接词(joining word)使用错误的识别与修正。

  例题:

  1. Your sales are up, therefore, your bonus is forthcoming.

  答案:

  1. Your sales are up; therefore, your bonus is forthcoming.

  解题思路:

  (1) 连接词(joining word)可分为连词(如:and, but, for, so, because, although, since等)和连接性副词(如:therefore, consequently, accordingly, moreover, furthermore, otherwise, likewise, however, nevertheless等)。连词和连接性副词在用法上有很多相似之处,但也有不同点。(2) 连词和连接性副词在连接两个分句时,前后使用的标点符号不同:连词之前常用逗号(,),之后通常不用标点;而连接性副词之前要求用分号(;)或句号(。),之后常用逗号(,)。(3)该句最简便的修正方法是将连接性副词therefore前的逗号(,)改为分号(;)。另外也可改为:Your sales are up. Therefore, your bonus is forthcoming. “评分标准”中规定:“与标准答案不一致,但句子结构正确,表意准确,也得满分。否则,酌情给分或不得分。

  典型错误:

  (错误)If your sales are up, your bonus will be forthcoming

  (分析)原句中的两个分句之间是因果关系,而不是假设关系。

  (错误)Your bonus is forthcoming, therefore, your sales are up.

  (分析)有些考生识别不出病句结构上的错误,就以为句义有误,对两个分句的因果关系作了调整。值得注意的是,写作基础试卷改写病句一题中的病句通常错在结构上,而不是语义上。

  2.考查对破句(fragmentary sentence)的识别和修正。

  例题:

  1. People worked together on the assembly line. Moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make as much money as possible.

  答案:

  1. People worked together on the assembly line, moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make s much money as possible.

  解题思路:

  (1)了解破句(fragmentary sentence)的特点:把句子的一部分当成了一个句子。英语中一个完整的句子必须包含“主语+谓语”结构,否则就是破句(fragmentary sentence)。(2)找出病句中结构不完整的句子(即不包含主谓结构的句子):Moving quickly and efficiently. (3)由于用分词结构而引起的破句的修改方法为:将分词结构还原为谓语形式使其独立成句,或者将分词结构与其前面或后面的句子融合在一起。本句最简便的修正方法是将moving前的句号(。)变成逗号(,),使moving quickly and efficiently融入前面的句子,成为表示伴随状况的分词短语。

  典型错误:

  (错误)People worked together on the assembly line, moving quickly and efficiently, they wanted to make as much money as possible.

  (分析)这是一个串句 (run-on sentence),误将两个独立分句合写在一个句子里面而没有适当地分离标识。

  (错误)People worked together on the assembly line moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make as much money as possible.

  (分析)moving的逻辑主语是people,不是assembly line,因此moving前必须有逗号(,),否则分词短语moving quickly and efficiently就变成了修饰名词assembly line的定语,而不再是谓语动词worked的伴随状况。

  3.考查对垂悬修饰语(dangling modifier)的识别和修正。

  例题:

  1. Watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  答案:

  1. While watching the parade, I had my wallet stolen. / While I was watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  解题思路:

  (1)了解垂悬修饰语(dangling modifier)的特点:修饰语在句中找不到逻辑上被修饰的对象。分词结构、不定式结构和介词短语做修饰语修饰句子时,易发生垂悬修饰现象。(2)修正时,可调整句子的主语,使之与上述结构或短语的逻辑主语一致;也可将分词结构、不定式结构或介词短语带上自己的逻辑主语,将其扩展成从句。(3)原句中做修饰语的分词结构watching the parade的逻辑主语与句子主语my wallet不一致,所以可将句子主语调整为I,或将句子主语保持不变,使watching the parade带上自己的逻辑主语I.

  典型错误:

  (错误)While watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  (分析)分词结构watching the parade前加上连词while或when,不能改变其垂悬修饰语(dangling modifier)的性质,因为其逻辑主语I未变,而与从句的主语my wallet仍然不一致。

  (错误)Watching the parade, I lost my wallet.

  (分析)修正病句不应该改变原句的意思。钱包丢失的原因可能是被盗,但也可能是别的原因,例如由于粗心遗忘在某地等。另外,从这一修改中,可看出相当一部分考生对have sth. done结构不太熟悉。

  4. 考查对错误平行结构(faulty parallelism)的识别和修正。

  例题:

  1. If a publisher rejects a novel, it is either because the story is unsaleable or the author is unknown.

  2. Our new car not only is more user-friendly, but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

  答案:

  1. If a publisher rejects a novel, it is either because the story is unsaleable or because the author is unknown.

  2. Our new car is not only more user-friendly but also more comfortable than our old one.

  解题思路:

  (1) 了解错误平行结构(faulty parallelism)产生的原因:平行结构(parallelism)是把两个或两个以上意思并列的成分用同等语法形式表达,如果意思上并列的成分用不同等的语法形式来表达,就破坏了其平行结构。(2) either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, both…and等关联并列连接词(correlative conjunction)用于连接意思并列的成分,所以每个连词后所跟的成分必须有相同的语法形式。 (3) 1题原句中连词either后是because引导的原因状语从句,or后也应补上because. 2题病句最简便的修正方法,是将两个形容词比较级作为平行成分,用not only…but also连接。

  典型错误:

  (错误)If a publisher rejects a novel, either the story is unsaleable or the author is unknown.

  (分析)从全句来看,这是一个逻辑关系模糊,句法不当的病句。不过应当肯定的是,平行的结构可以是单词、词组,也可以是从句甚至句子。

  (错误)Not only our new car is more user-friendly but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

  (分析)not only…but also可以连接两个平行结构的句子,但not only后的句子必须倒装,如:Not only is our new car more user-friendly, but also it is more comfortable than our old one. 另外,not only…but also连接两个主语、谓语相同的句子时显得啰嗦和没有必要,故常用来连接两个主语、谓语不同的句子,如:Not only is he himself interested in the subject, but also all his students have begun to show an interest in it.

  III 标出主题句(本大题共3小题,每小题5分,共15分)

  1.考查对主题句(topic sentence)特征的掌握以及识别主题句的能力。

  例题:

  1. Choose the best topic sentence from the group below. Write the letter of the choice in the blank.

  [A] Temperatures in the western hemisphere have stayed the same in the past century.

  [B] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are being studied by scientists.

  [C] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are gradually warming.

  [D] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are being changed.

  答案:

  1. [C] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are gradually warming.

  解题思路:

  (1)了解主题句(topic sentence)的特征:主题句(topic sentence)是一个段落中最重要的句子,它的作用是概括一个段落的中心意思,所以往往是表示一般概念的句子。范围太大或太小,都会使作者无法展开段落,必须通过某些限制性词语将内容范围限制到一定程度,因此主题句应包括主题和限制性词语。从语义层次分析,主题句是一个概括性的语句(general statement),它必须包涵段落要谈论的主体(subject)和这个主体的某一所谈论的方面(controlling idea),即Topic sentence=Subject + Controlling idea. (2)比较上题中的四句,看哪一句既有一定的概括性,又能留出一定的展开余地。(3)[C]句符合上述的条件,其中Temperatures in the western hemisphere是subject; are gradually warming是controlling idea, 有待推展和细节支持。(4) 其余三句虽也符合主题句“Topic sentence=Subject + Controlling idea”的特征,但[A]句中have stayed the same in the past century是静态的描述,不利于推展;[B]句中are being studied by scientists意义笼统,缺乏探讨的价值;[D]句中被动语态are being changed的使用使句义不够明晰,令人费解。

  2.考查在段落中寻找主题句(topic sentence)的能力。

  例题:

  1. Read the following paragraph and underline the topic sentence.

  I don‘t like algebra this semester, and I’m not too found of history. But I‘m enjoying my racquetball (短网拍墙球)class a lot. I’m getting a lot of exercise, and I‘m also enjoying the game. We usually play partners and compete in small tournaments within the class. The competition is fun, and playing partners keeps it relaxed. I also have found that I have some ability in racquetball that I haven’t had in other sports. I may sign up for intermediate racquetball next semester.

  答案:

  1. Topic sentence: I‘m enjoying my racquetball class a lot.

  解题思路:

  (1)段落中的主题句(topic sentence)是全段的统领,它说明段落的中心思想和作者写作的目的。段落的其余句子必须与主题句密切相关,共同阐明、证实主题句。因此,主题句具有概括性,支配段落中其他各句的走句。(2)多数情况下主题句出现在段首,但也可以在段中或段尾。上题段落中的第二句I‘m enjoying my racquetball class a lot包含subject(racquetball class)和controlling idea (I’m enjoying it a lot),下文各句就enjoying一词展开,详细说明喜欢racquetball class的事实和原因。所以敲定该句为主题句。

  典型错误:

  (错误)Topic sentence: I may sign up for intermediate racquetball next semester.

  (分析)该句适合做结论句(concluding sentence),因为它必须依赖前文对enjoying my racquetball class的探讨才有效度。

  3. 考查根据段落中的支持句(supporting sentences)来推断主题句(topic sentence)的能力。

  例题:

  1. Read the following paragraph carefully and select the best topic sentence from the four possible answers that follow the paragraph.

  Topic sentence:

  First, there are always customers to be served. I work in a downtown McDonald‘s that gets lots of traffic, and as soon as I serve one customer, there is always another one ready to order. There is constant pressure because I can never step back for a few minutes and relax. Second, I have to put together all of the orders myself. To do that, I have to move all over the serving area: French fries on one side, drinks on the other, and burgers in middle. It’s easy to get sloppy and spill a Coke or throw French fries on the floor. Also, I must always move at a fast pace. McDonald‘s has an image to uphold, and its workers must scurry (急赶)about like ants. If I don’t move fast enough, some customers will say, “Hey, speed it up,” or “I thought McDonald‘s had fast service.” And with all of this nonstop work, I only get one ten-minute break every two hours. However, ten minutes isn’t enough time to rest and feel like getting back to work. It only gives me enough time to realize how tired I am, so I go back to work depressed. Finally, my manager really keeps the pressure on. He watches us like a hawk, and every time I do something wrong, he seems to catch it. He also has a reputation for firing people, and he never lets any of the workers feel that their jobs are safe. By the end of the day, I‘m emotionally and physically drained, like everyone else, and we all head out the door grumbling(喃喃鸣不平的)

  [A] The hamburger sold at McDonald‘s is my favorite food.

  [B] There are several reasons that I like McDonald‘s.

  [C] Working at McDonald‘s is very tiring.

  [D] I have no idea about working at McDonald‘s.

  答案:

  1. Topic sentence: [C] Working at McDonald‘s is very tiring.

  解题思路:

  (1)明确主题句(topic sentence)与支持句(supporting sentence)的关系:主题句(topic sentence)是统领,起着开宗明义、提纲挈领的作用,其余的与主题相关的支持句(supporting sentences)都围绕主题句来展开,用来阐明、证实主题句。(2)上题段落中的各句描述了麦当劳员工工作的情况:店员要不停地接待一个又一个顾客,异常忙碌,身体极度疲劳,还要承受顾客的诸多抱怨和经理的严厉监督。所有这些supporting sentences都用细节支持说明一个事实:在麦当劳工作十分辛苦。故[C]句Working at McDonald‘s is very tiring就是该段落的topic sentence.(3)[A]、[B]、[D]三句,与段落各支持句内容或不相关或相矛盾,故为错解。

  V. 重新组合段落(本大题共5小题,每小题1分,共5分)

  例题:

  19. Wines must be drunk quickly once they are opened, otherwise bacteria will use the air to convert the alcohol to vinegar.

  20. Red wine is made from dark grapes, and white wine from whiter grapes or from dark grapes whose skins have been removed from the wine press at an early stage.

  21. Wine is the fermented juice of fresh grapes.

  22.The bacteria are killed by a higher alcohol content that is found in wine and that is why sherry and port, the specialties of Spain and Portugal, are fortified by the addition of spirits to make them last longer.

  23. Wine was made in England in the Middle Ages, but the climate is not really suitable for grapevines.

  24. In wine-making, the grapes are crushed in a wine press and the yeast converts the sugar to alcohol, when there is no air present, by a process called fermentation.

  25. The most famous wine-making countries are France, Germany and Italy.

  26. The juice of the wine grape contains sugar, and growths of yeast form on the outside of the grape skins.

  20 25 23

  答案:

  21 24 26 20 25 23 19 22

  解题思路:

  本题考查段落的连贯性。连贯性和语言表达的形式相关。指的是一个句子能自然的过渡到下一个句子。既指句与句之间的联系,又指整个段落的组织。在一个段落中,句子与句子之间有一种自然的逻辑关系。段落中的每一个句子,都是前一个句子的某种逻辑归宿与承诺,从而使整个段落浑然一体。做到句与句之间连贯性较好,经常采用下面的几种方法。(1)使用代词 大部分代词是用来替代前面出现的名词的。写作中使用代词可以避免重复,使文章简洁。它们往往是前指的,也就是说,上下两个句子如果下句出现的代词是代指上句出现的名词。这样就为我们提供了两句间的先后关系和逻辑关系。(2)重复核心词和短语  词汇手段也是达到段落连贯性的手段之一。经常重复核心词和短语,使读者注意到文章的中心所在。这里重复的词汇可能是以多种形式出现的。(3)正确使用过渡词 正确使用关联词可以大大提高段落的连贯性。像是first, second, next, for example 等连接词,它们就像路标一样指引读者沿着作者的思路顺利阅读下去。常见的连接词参见附录。

  解答这类问题首先应该读懂各句,在读的过程中就要开动脑筋,思考几句之间的关系。然后在根据前面所学有关连贯性的表达标志来做出判断。解答类似题目,找出第一句很关键。在寻找第一句时,应该先将提示的即给出的连续三句划出,推敲其它五句。根据我们学习的知识,段落的主题句往往出现在段落的第一句。这样我们就可以利用段落主题句的知识来判断哪一句可能是第一句。大家注意,这里讲的是一种最大可能性,而不是绝对。有时主题句出现在第二句,那么第一句应该是比较宽泛的论述。然后利用其它三个手段来定位句子之间的先后关系。

  这篇文章第一句应该是21句,它给wine 下了一个定义。其中一个词fermented是理解这个定义的关键;这预示着下一句要解释这一词。这时我们发现第24句中重复了关键词fermentation.这两句应该是本段的第一、二句。这句话正好解释了fermentation“发酵”一词的含义,这一概念中提到了sugar, alcohol, yeast,no air 等关键词。而这些关键词分别包含在的19、22、26句中。这说明第24句应该在这三句之前。第20、26句中关键词skins重复出现。通过分析我们看到第26句要比第20句宽泛,20句是对skins和葡萄酒关系的限定,所以26句应该放在20句前面。提示给定了第23、25句的顺序,我们可以看成这两句相对比较独立,说的是葡萄酒的产地。剩下的第19、22两句,根据宽泛统辖限定的原理,第19句应该在第22句之前。

  通过分析,我们发现一条段落发展的脉络,抽象一点讲,就是一句话中,主题受到限定,即前面讲的Topic + Controlling Ideas = A Sentence.第二句话的发展就以上一句话的限定语作为主语,再加上自己的限定语,如此类推下去。因此,大家在解题时,阅读句子时要有一种期待感,即注意把握限定语的核心部分,来期待下一句的进一步展开。

  主题      核心限定语                                 句子1

  主题      核心限定语                                句子 2

  主题      核心限定语                                句子 3

  ……

  Wine  fermented juice of grapes.  21

  Fermentation    yeast,  sugar,  alcohol, no air         24

  growths of yeast sugar      grape skins.      26

   …  whose skins     Red/ white wine 20

  Wine  France, Germany and Italy.               25

  Wine   in England in the Middle Ages,            23

  once they are opened,  bacteria    19

  The bacteria      22

  V.标出与段落内容无关的句子 (本大题共10分)

  例题:Read the following paragraph and cross out irrelevant sentences.

  1. The chief reasons people wear masks are these: to have fun, to protect themselves, to disguise themselves, and to acquire a new identity.2. Masks are very useful. 3.At Halloween, children wear masks for fun; they may, of course, also think they are disguising themselves, but chiefly their motive is to experience the joy of saying “boo” to someone. 4. Soldiers wore masks for protection, in ancient times against swords and battle-axes, in more recent times against poison gas. 5. Bank robbers wear masks to disguise themselves, and though of course this disguise is a sort of protection, a robber‘s reason for wearing a mask is fairly distinct from a soldier’s. 6. All of these reasons so far are easily understood, but we may have more trouble grasping the reason that primitive people use masks in religious rituals. 7. Some ritual masks seem merely to be attempts to frighten away evil spirits, and some seem merely to be disguises so that the evil spirits will not know who the wearer is.8. The masks are usually made of paper. 9. But most religious masks are worn with the idea that the wearer acquires, through a union with supernatural powers, a new identity, and thus in effect becomes—really becomes, not merely pretends to be—a new person.

  解题思路:本题考查的是考生对统一性的掌握。统一性就是指段落中所有的句子都要和主题句相关,围绕主题句展开,不允许出现和主题无关的句子。即所写的文章紧扣主题。要求作者切记文章的题目和写作目标,写出的句子都必须为中心思想服务。因此,首要任务是找出段落的主题句。通读全文我们知道段落主题句是The chief reasons people wear masks are these: to have fun, to protect themselves, to disguise themselves, and to acquire a new identity. 后面的句子都要围绕这一思想即“戴面具的原因是出于娱乐,保护,伪装和获得新身份。不难发现,第3句,第4句,第5句分别是主题句中”戴面具的原因是出于娱乐,保护,伪装“的三个例子。很明显第2句是多余的。第6,7,8,9句是对”戴面具的原因是获得新身份的解释“,连词But说明第8句间和第9句有转折关系,但是我们发现第8句和第9句的关系并非如此,而是和第7句有转折关系。因此,第8句是多余的。第5句的后半部分多余,原因是它对细节描写过于详细,又引出了新话题”士兵和抢劫者的伪装截然不同“,背离了段落中心思想。另外还可以参照,第3句,这两句的句式相似。

  V. 写信 (本大题共40分)

  信件写作是每年必考的题型之一,而且分值较高,应该引起大家的重视。从2000年以来,先后考过了求职信,感谢信,邀请信,抱怨信等。可以看成几种信件类型同等重要,大家复习时不能偏好,应该扎实掌握各类信件的基本句型和格式。

  考生在复习时,要注意一些常见的表达兴趣,表达感谢,表达祝贺,表达抱怨,表达期望,表达附带简历的句型,这就要求考生要认真阅读课本例子,甚至要背诵一些其中较为固定的表达。有时,试题中的要求会将几种类型的信件结合起来,例如先感谢后邀请,这时大家要根据要求所列要点,灵活写作。

  具体考试时,要认真审题,看清所写信件类型,明白写作的。认真阅读题目,找出信件的内容细节,不能漏掉。列出大纲要点,然后写作。格要准确,目的表达要明确,内容要完全,这三点完备,就能写出好文章。

  五、补充材料

  英语写作常见错误

  一。 不一致(Disagreements)

  所谓不一致不光指主谓不一致,它还包括了数的不一致, 时态不一致及代词不一致等。

  例When one have money, he can do what he want to. 此句中,one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has; 同理,want应改为wants.本句是典型的主谓不一致。应该改为:Once one has money, he can do what he wants (to do)

  二。 修饰语错位(Misplaced Modifiers)

  英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语置于句子不同的位置,句子的含义可能引起变化。对于这一点中国学生往往没有引起足够的重视,因而造成了不必要的误解。例, I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus. 此句中better位置不当,应置于句末。

  三。 句子不完整(Sentence Fragments)

  在口语中,交际双方可借助手势语气上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解。可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,笔者又想加些补充说明时发生。例There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV, radio, newspaper and so on. 本句后半部分 “for example by TV, radio , newspaper and so on”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句。应改为There are many ways to know society, for example, by TV, radio, and newspaper.

  四。悬垂修饰语(Dangling Modifiers)

  所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清。例如:At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 这句中“at the age of ten”只点出十岁时,但没有说明“谁”十岁时,按一般推理不可能是my grandfather. 如果我们把这个悬垂修饰语改明确一点,全句就不那么费解了。

  应改为When I was ten, my grandfather died. 再如:To do well in college, good grades are essential.

  句中不定式短语 “to do well in college” 的逻辑主语不清楚,应该改为:To do well in college, a student needs good grades.

  五。词性误用(Misuse of Parts of Speech)

  “词性误用”常表现为:介词当动词用;形容词当副词用;名词当动词用等。例 None can egative the importance of money. “negative” 是形容词,误作动词。应改为:None can deny the importance of money.

  六。 指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)

  指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。试看下面这一句:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid. 读完这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,意思就一目了然了。这个句子可改为:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid. 再如 And we can also know the society by serving it yourself. 句中人称代词we 和反身代词yourself指代不一致。应改为:We can also know society by serving it ourselves.

  七。 串句 (Run-on Sentences)

  什么叫run-on sentence? 请看下面的例句。There are many ways we get to know the outside world. 这个句子包含了两层完整的意思:“There are many ways.” 以及“We get to know the outside world……” 简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。应该改为:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world.

  八。措词毛病(Troubles in Diction)

  Diction 是指在特定的句子中如何适当地选用词语的问题,囿于教学时间紧迫,教师平时在这方面花的时间往往极其有限,影响了学生在写作中没有养成良好的推敲,斟酌的习惯。他们往往随心所欲,拿来就用。所以作文中用词不当的错误比比皆是。例如:The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution. 显然,考生把obstacles“障碍”,“障碍物” 误作substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use ” 应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。应该改为:The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution.

  九。 累赘(Redundancy)

  言以简洁为贵。写句子没有一个多余的词;写段落没有一个无必要的句子。能用单词的不用词组;能用词组的不用从句或句子。如:In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.

  本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同谓语从句,我们按照上述“能用词组的不用从句”可以改为:In spite of his laziness, I like him. 再如 For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need. 整个句子可以大大简化。改为:Diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need.

  十。 不连贯(Incoherence)

  不连贯是指一个句子前言不对后语,或是结构上不畅通。这也是考生常犯的毛病。再如:The fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.  The fresh water 与逗号后的it 不连贯。It 与things 在数方面不一致。应改为:Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.

  常见连接词

  1. To add ideas together

  And, also, besides, furthermore, in addition, moreover, too, first, second, finally

  2. TO show emphasis and clarity

  Above all, after all, in fact, particularly, that is

  3. To show similarity

  Like, likewise, in the same manner, in the same way, similarly

  4. To show contrast

  Although, but, however, in comparison, in contrast, in spite of, on the contrary, on the other hand, unlike, whereas, while, yet

  5. To express cause and effect relationship

  As, because, due to, for, for this reason, now that, since, owing t, as a result (consequence), accordingly, consequently, therefore, thus

  6. To point out examples

  For example, for instance, to illustrate

  7. To draw a conclusion, an inference, or a summary

  In a word, in conclusion, in brief, in short, in summary, to conclude, to summarize, to sum up, therefore

  8. To indicate time

  At times, after, afterward, from then on, immediately, later, meanwhile, next, now, then, until, while.

本文转载链接:《英语写作基础》课程简介

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