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《英语写作基础》考核知识点分析与解题思路

2006-09-14 17:30   【 】【我要纠错

  近几年的英语写作基础试卷在考查内容和试题类型上改动不大,保持了命题的连贯性。考查内容包括三大部分:句子的组成、段落的写作、应用文写作。题型有重写句子、改写病句、识别主题句、重新组合段落、识别与段落内容无关的句子、写信六种。本文将按题型顺序对2000年试题的考核知识点与解题思路进行分析和探讨,同时,也将对考生答题中的典型错误作一剖析,希望能有益于准备参加今年考试的同学。

  第一大题 重写句子(本大题共10小题,每小题1.5分,共15分)

  Rewrite each of the following sentences according to the requirement.

  一,考核知识点:考查loose sentence 与periodic sentence之间的转换。

  ●试题:

  2. I felt like taking a walk after watching the sunset. (periodic sentence)

  3. While they were waiting in line for the concert tickets, the rain stopped. (loose sentence)

  ●答案:

  2. After watching the sunset, I felt like taking a walk.

  3. The rain stopped while they were waiting in line for the concert tickets.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 明确两种句型的特点:就语义结构而论,periodic sentence(掉尾句)中主要信息在后,次要信息在前,使句子的重心置于句尾,旨在造成悬念,引人入胜;而loose sentence(松散句)则正相反,将句义重心放在句首,使主要信息一目了然。就语法结构而言,periodic sentence(掉尾句)将句子成分中的修饰部分放在主要成分(一般为主谓结构)之前;而loose sentence(松散句)则反之。

  (2) 第二题原句主要信息为 I felt like taking a walk,放在次要信息After watching the sunset之前,原句是loose sentence(松散句),变换句型只要将主次信息换位即可。第三题原句的主要信息为the rain stopped,次要信息为while they were waiting in line for the concert tickets,原句是periodic sentence(掉尾句),变换成loose sentence(松散句),需主次信息换位。

  二,考核知识点:考查将两个独立短句合并成一个simple sentence的能力。

  ●试题:

  5. The letter is from my foreign friend. The letter arrived today. (simple sentence)

  9. My roommate was waiting for me at the door. He had a book in his hand. (simple sentence)

  ●答案:

  5. The letter from my foreign friend arrived today.

  9. My roommate with a book in his hand was waiting for me at the door.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 明确simple sentence(简单句)的构成:simple sentence(简单句)包含一个主语+谓语动词(S+V)的结构。

  (2) 将两个短句的共同主语作为合并后的simple sentence(简单句)的主语,并将其中包含主要信息的短句的谓语动词确立为simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词,另一短句转化为修饰成分。

  (3) 第5题原句中第一个短句为次要信息,介词短语from my foreign friend可作为修饰成分。第9题原句中,第一个短句包含主要信息,其谓语动词was waiting可作为合并后的simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词,第二个短句He had a book in his hand,可转化为with引导的介词短语结构,作修饰成分。

  ●考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)The letter which arrived today is from my foreign friend.

  (分析)错误有二:一、未将原句中包含主要信息的短句的谓语动词arrived作为合并后的simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词;二、含有定语从句的句子不是simple sentence(简单句),而是complex sentence(复合句)。

  (错误)The letter arrived today is from my foreign friend.

  (分析)这是一个病句,句中出现两个没有合适方式连接的谓语动词,根本不符合语法规则。

  (错误)My roommate, who had a book in his hand, was waiting for me at the door.

  (分析)此句中who had a book in his hand是定语从句,而simple sentence(简单句)中不能含有从句。

  三,考核知识点:考查独立短句与compound sentence之间的转换

  ●试题:

  1. Jerry is a good student. He studies hard and grasps concepts well. (compound sentence)

  6. We could take a taxi. We could walk to the restaurant. (compound sentence)

  10. I needed butter to make the cookie better. I couldn‘t find any. I used vegetable oil instead. (compound sentence)

  ●答案:

  1. Jerry is a good student, for he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

  6. We could take a taxi or we could walk to the restaurant.

  10. I needed butter to make the cookie better, but I couldn‘t find any, so I used vegetable oil instead.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 明确compound sentence(并列句)的特点:compound sentence(并列句)是由并列连词或特定的标点符号将意义相关、结构完整的两个或两个以上的simple sentence(简单句)连接起来构成的。

  (2) 理顺独立短句间逻辑关系:是承递、转折、选择、还是因果?确定好后在并列连接词and, nor, but, yet, or, for, so之中选一个出来连接各分句。

  (3) 第1题中,两分句间的关系为前因后果,所以选择for引出解释原因的分句。第6题中,两分句为选择关系,可用or连接。第10题较为复杂,前两个分句是转折关系,可用but或yet连接;它们又与第三个分句形成前因后果的关系,所以选择so引出结果。

  ●考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)Jerry is a good student for he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

  (分析)用for引导表示原因的分句时,它前面一定要用comma(逗号)。

  (错误)For Jerry is a good student, he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

  (分析)除了因果关系不妥外,for的位置也不正确。用for连接两个简单句时,前句表示结果或结论,后句说明产生前述结果的原因,所以for只能出现在后句中。

  (错误)We could take a taxi or walk to the restaurant.

  (分析)此句仍是一个simple sentence(简单句)而不是compound sentence(并列句),compound sentence(并列句)必须包含两个或两个以上的simple sentence(简单句)

  四,考核知识点:考查compound sentence与complex sentence之间的转换

  ●试题:

  4. The tape recorder was not working right, so I returned it to the store. (complex sentence)

  ●答案:

  4. Because the tape recorder was not working right, I returned it to the store.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 了解complex sentence(复合句)的构成:complex sentence(复合句)包含一个主句及一个或多个从句。从句分为名词性从句、形容词性从句和副词性从句。

  (2) 第4题原句是compound sentence(并列句),两个分句为因果关系,要把compound sentence(并列句)重写成complex sentence(复合句)时,只需将第一个分句改为由从属连接词because引导的原因状语从句即可。

  ●考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)I returned the tape recorder to the store, for it was not working right.

  (分析)for虽然也可引导表示原因的分句,但它是并列连接词,用在compound sentence(并列句)中,这点与because、as、since等引导原因状语从句的从属连接词不同。

  五,考核知识点:考查对compound-complex sentence的掌握和运用。

  ●试题:

  7. If you want me to clean your windows, please give me a week‘s notice. I am very busy this month. (compound-complex sentence)

  ●答案:

  7. If you want me to clean your windows, please give me a week‘s notice, for I am very busy this month.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 了解compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)的构成:顾名思义,compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)是由复合句并列而形成的。具体地说,compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)可以是一个简单句与一个主从复合句用并列连接词连接起来的,也可以是两个主从复合句的并列。

  (2) 第7题原句中的第一个句子是含有条件状语从句的主从复合句,第一句与第二句是前因后果的关系,将两句话用并列连接词for连接起来,即可合并为一个compound - complex sentence(并列复合句)。

  ●考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)Please give me a week‘s notice if you want me to clean your windows, because I am very busy this month.

  (分析)此句仍是complex sentence(复合句),因为because为从属连接词。在表示原因的连接词中,只有for是并列连接词,用于连接两个具有并列关系的分句。阅卷中发现,相当多的考生没有掌握好连接词for的用法。

  六,考核知识点:考查对parallel structure概念的掌握和运用

  ●试题:

  8. Minnie bought a ticket to the play. She went out for dinner. She arrived at the theater by 8:00. (parallel structure)

  ●答案:

  8. Minnie bought a ticket to the play, went out for dinner, and arrived at the theater by 8:00.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 明确parallel structure(平行结构)的特点:parallel structure(平行结构)是把两个或两个以上意思并列的成分用同等的语法形式表示出来。平行的结构可以是单词、词组、从句,也可以是句子。

  (2) 第8题原有的三个短句中,主语均为Minnie,谓语动词bought、went out、及arrived是意思并列的成分,可以成为平行结构。

  ●考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)Minnie bought a ticket to the play, arrived at the theater by 8:00,and went out for dinner.

  (分析)Minnie买票、外出吃饭、到达剧院是按照时间顺序先后发生的,次序不能随意更改。

  (错误)Minnie bought a ticket to the play, went out for dinner, then arrived at the theater by 8:00.

  (分析)then不是并列连接词,不能取代and.

  上一讲,我们对第一种题型“重写句子”的考核知识点与解题思路进行了分析和探讨,并对考生答题中的典型错误作了剖析。本讲我们将研究第二种题型“改写病句”,病句中的一些语病在中国学生的英文写作中十分常见,值得认真推敲。

  第二大题 改写病句(本大题共5小题,每小题3分,共15分)

  Correct the errors in the following sentences

  一, 考核知识点:考查对连接词(joining word)使用错误的识别与修正。

  ●试题:

  11. Your sales are up, therefore, your bonus is forthcoming.

  ●答案:

  11. Your sales are up; therefore, your bonus is forthcoming.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 连接词(joining word)可分为连词(如:and, but, for, so, because, although, since等)和连接性副词(如:therefore, consequently, accordingly, moreover, furthermore, otherwise, likewise, however, nevertheless等)。连词和连接性副词在用法上有很多相似之处,但也有不同点。

  (2) 连词和连接性副词在连接两个分句时,前后使用的标点符号不同:连词之前常用逗号(,),之后通常不用标点;而连接性副词之前要求用分号(;)或句号(。),之后常用逗号(,)。

  (3) 该句最简便的修正方法是将连接性副词therefore前的逗号(,)改为分号(;)。另外也可改为:Your sales are up. Therefore, your bonus is forthcoming. “评分标准”中规定:“与标准答案不一致,但句子结构正确,表意准确,也得满分。否则,酌情给分或不得分。”

  ●考生典型答题错误分析:

  (错误)If your sales are up, your bonus will be forthcoming

  (分析)原句中的两个分句之间是因果关系,而不是假设关系。

  (错误)Your bonus is forthcoming, therefore, your sales are up.

  (分析)有些考生识别不出病句结构上的错误,就以为句义有误,对两个分句的因果关系作了调整。值得注意的是,写作基础试卷改写病句一题中的病句通常错在结构上,而不是语义上。

  二, 考核知识点:考查对破句(fragmentary sentence)的识别和修正。

  ●试题:

  12. People worked together on the assembly line. Moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make as much money as possible.

  ●答案:

  12. People worked together on the assembly line, moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make s much money as possible.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 了解破句(fragmentary sentence)的特点:把句子的一部分当成了一个句子。英语中一个完整的句子必须包含“主语+谓语”结构,否则就是破句(fragmentary sentence)。

  (2) 找出病句中结构不完整的句子(即不包含主谓结构的句子):Moving quickly and efficiently.

  (3) 由于用分词结构而引起的破句的修改方法为:将分词结构还原为谓语形式使其独立成句,或者将分词结构与其前面或后面的句子融合在一起。本句最简便的修正方法是将moving前的句号(。)变成逗号(,),使moving quickly and efficiently融入前面的句子,成为表示伴随状况的分词短语。

  ●考生典型答题错误分析:

  (错误)People worked together on the assembly line, moving quickly and efficiently., they wanted to make s much money as possible.

  (分析)这是一个串句(run-on sentence),误将两个独立分句合写在一个句子里面而没有适当地分离标识。

  (错误)People worked together on the assembly line moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make s much money as possible.

  (分析)moving的逻辑主语是people,不是assembly line,因此moving前必须有逗号(,),否则分词短语moving quickly and efficiently就变成了修饰名词assembly line的定语,而不再是谓语动词worked的伴随状况。

  三, 考核知识点:考查对垂悬修饰语(dangling modifier)的识别和修正。

  ●试题:

  13. Watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  ●答案:

  13. While watching the parade, I had my wallet stolen. / While I was watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 了解垂悬修饰语(dangling modifier)的特点:修饰语在句中找不到逻辑上被修饰的对象。分词结构、不定式结构和介词短语做修饰语修饰句子时,易发生垂悬修饰现象。

  (2) 修正时,可调整句子的主语,使之与上述结构或短语的逻辑主语一致;也可将分词结构、不定式结构或介词短语带上自己的逻辑主语,将其扩展成从句。

  (3) 原句中做修饰语的分词结构watching the parade的逻辑主语与句子主语my wallet不一致,所以可将句子主语调整为I,或将句子主语保持不变,使watching the parade带上自己的逻辑主语I.

  ●考生典型答题错误分析:

  (错误)While watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  (分析)分词结构watching the parade前加上连词while或when,不能改变其垂悬修饰语(dangling modifier)的性质,因为其逻辑主语I未变,而与从句的主语my wallet仍然不一致。

  (错误)Watching the parade, I lost my wallet.

  (分析)修正病句不应该改变原句的意思。钱包丢失的原因可能是被盗,但也可能是别的原因,例如由于粗心遗忘在某地等。另外,从这一修改中,可看出相当一部分考生对have sth. done结构不太熟悉。

  四, 考核知识点:考查对错误平行结构(faulty parallelism)的识别和修正。

  ●试题:

  14. If a publisher rejects a novel, it is either because the story is unsaleable or the author is unknown.

  15. Our new car not only is more user-friendly, but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

  ●答案:

  14. If a publisher rejects a novel, it is either because the story is unsaleable or because the author is unknown.

  15. Our new car is not only more user-friendly but also more comfortable than our old one.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 了解错误平行结构(faulty parallelism)产生的原因:平行结构(parallelism)是把两个或两个以上意思并列的成分用同等语法形式表达,如果意思上并列的成分用不同等的语法形式来表达,就破坏了其平行结构。

  (2) either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, both…and等关联并列连接词(correlative conjunction)用于连接意思并列的成分,所以每个连词后所跟的成分必须有相同的语法形式。

  (3) 14题原句中连词either后是because引导的原因状语从句,or后也应补上because.

  15题病句最简便的修正方法,是将两个形容词比较级作为平行成分,用not only…but also连接。

  ●考生典型答题错误分析:

  (错误)If a publisher rejects a novel, either the story is unsaleable or the author is unknown.

  (分析)从全句来看,这是一个逻辑关系模糊,句法不当的病句。不过应当肯定的是,平行的结构可以是单词、词组,也可以是从句甚至句子。

  (错误)Not only our new car is more user-friendly but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

  (分析)not only…but also可以连接两个平行结构的句子,但not only后的句子必须倒装,如:Not only is our new car more user-friendly, but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

  另外,not only…but also连接两个主语、谓语相同的句子时显得啰嗦和没有必要,故常用来连接两个主语、谓语不同的句子,如:Not only is he himself interested in the subject, but also all his students have begun to show an interest in it. 前两讲,我们讨论了“句子的组成”部分考核知识点与解题思路,下面我们将研究“段落的写作”方面的内容。

  第三大题 标出主题句(本大题共3小题,每小题5分,共15分)

  一, 考核知识点:考查对主题句(topic sentence)特征的掌握以及识别主题句的能力。

  ●试题:

  16. Choose the best topic sentence from the group below. Write the letter of the choice in the blank.

  [A] Temperatures in the western hemisphere have stayed the same in the past century.

  Temperatures in the western hemisphere are being studied by scientists.

  [C] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are gradually warming.

  [D] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are being changed.

  ●答案:

  16. [C] Temperatures in the western hemisphere are gradually warming.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 了解主题句(topic sentence)的特征:主题句(topic sentence)是一个段落中最重要的句子,它的作用是概括一个段落的中心意思,所以往往是表示一般概念的句子。范围太大或太小,都会使作者无法展开段落,必须通过某些限制性词语将内容范围限制到一定程度,因此主题句应包括主题和限制性词语。从语义层次分析,主题句是一个概括性的语句(general statement),它必须包涵段落要谈论的主体(subject)和这个主体的某一所谈论的方面(controlling idea),即Topic sentence=Subject+Contrlling idea.

  (2) 比较16题中的四句,看哪一句既有一定的概括性,又能留出一定的展开余地。

  (3) [C]句符合上述的条件,其中Temperatures in the western hemisphere是subject; are gradually warming是controlling idea,有待推展和细节支持。

  (4) 其余三句虽也符合主题句“Topic sentence=Subject+Contrlling idea”的特征,但[A]句中have stayed the same in the past century是静态的描述,不利于推展;句中are being studied by scientists意义笼统,缺乏探讨的价值;[D]句中被动语态are being changed的使用使句义不够明晰,令人费解。

  二, 考核知识点:考查在段落中寻找主题句(topic sentence)的能力。

  ●试题:

  17. Read the following paragraph and underline the topic sentence.

  I don‘t like algebra this semester, and I’m not too found of history. But I‘m enjoying my racquetball class a lot. I’m getting a lot of exercise, and I‘m also enjoying the game. We usually play partners and compete in small tournaments within the class. The competition is fun, and playing partners keeps it relaxed. I also have found that I have some ability in racquetball that I haven’t had in other sports. I may sign up for intermediate racquetball next semester.

  ●答案:

  17. Topic sentence: I‘m enjoying my racquetball class a lot.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 段落中的主题句(topic sentence)是全段的统领,它说明段落的中心思想和作者写作的目的。段落的其余句子必须与主题句密切相关,共同阐明、证实主题句。因此,主题句具有概括性,支配段落中其他各句的走句。

  (2) 多数情况下主题句出现在段首,但也可以在段中或段尾。17题段落中的第二句I‘m enjoying my racquetball class a lot包含subject(racquetball class)和controlling idea(I’m enjoying it a lot),下文各句就enjoying一词展开,详细说明喜欢racquetball class的事实和原因。所以敲定该句为主题句。

  ●考生典型答题错误分析:

  (错误)Topic sentence: I may sign up for intermediate racquetball next semester.

  (分析)该句适合做结论句(concluding sentence),因为它必须依赖前文对enjoying my racquetball class的探讨才有效度。

  三, 考核知识点:考查根据段落中的支持句(supporting sentences)来推断主题句(topic sentence)的能力。

  ●试题:

  18. Read the following paragraph carefully and select the best topic sentence from the four possible answers that follow the paragraph.

  Topic sentence:

  First, there are always customers to be served. I work in a downtown McDonald‘s that gets lots of traffic, and as soon as I serve one customer, there is always another one ready to order. There is constant pressure because I can never step back for a few minutes and relax. Second, I have to put together all of the orders myself. To do that, I have to move all over the serving area: French fries on one side, drinks on the other, and burgers in middle. It’s easy to get sloppy and spill a Coke or throw French fries on the floor. Also, I must always move at a fast pace. McDonald‘s has an image to uphold, and its workers must scurry about like ants. If I don’t move fast enough, some customers will say, “Hey, speed it up,” or “I though McDonald‘s had fast service.” And with all of this nonstop work, I only get one ten-minute break every two hours. However, ten minutes isn’t enough time to rest and feel like getting back to work. It only gives me enough time to realize hoe tired I am, so I go back to work depressed. Finally, my manager really keeps the pressure on. He watches us like a hawk, and every time I do something wrong, he seems to catch it. He also has a reputation for firing people, and he never lets any of the workers feel that their jobs are safe. By the end of the day, I‘m emotionally and physically drained, like everyone else, and we all head out the door grumbling.

  [A] The hamburger sold at McDonald‘s is my favorite food.

  There are several reasons that I like McDonald‘s.

  [C] Working at McDonald‘s is very tiring.

  [D] I have no idea about working at McDonald‘s.

  ●答案:

  18. Topic sentence: [C] Working at McDonald‘s is very tiring.

  ●解题关键:

  (1) 明确主题句(topic sentence)与支持句(supporting sentence)的关系:主题句(topic sentence)是统领,起着开宗明义、提纲挈领的作用,其余的与主题相关的支持句(supporting sentences)都围绕主题句来展开,用来阐明、证实主题句。

  (2) 18题段落中的各句描述了麦当劳员工工作的情况:店员要不停地接待一个又一个顾客,异常忙碌,身体极度疲劳,还要承受顾客的诸多抱怨和经理的严厉监督。所有这些supporting sentences都用细节支持说明一个事实:在麦当劳工作十分辛苦。故[C]句Working at McDonald‘s is very tiring就是该段落的topic sentence.

  (3) [A]、、[D]三句,与段落各支持句内容或不相关或相矛盾,故为错解。

本文转载链接:《英语写作基础》考核知识点分析与解题思路

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