英语写作基础考试题型：《英语写作基础自学考试大纲》的规定“本课程试卷采用的题型主要包括：判断题、改错题、改写题、概要写作、应用文写作等”。判断题、改错题、改写题等主要考核应考生对句子（The Sentence）和段落（The Paragraph）基本知识点如改写句子包括改写掉尾句（periodic sentence）、平行结构（parallel structure）等和判断主题句（topic sentence）等掌握情况；例如：
Ⅰ。Revise the following sentences according to the requirement
1.The plan began to shake noticeably as soon as it lifted off the runway.（periodic sentence）
2.James Joyce's Ulysses，a long and complicated novel and which is on our reading list，has been banned by the school board.（parallel structure）
Ⅱ。Read the following paragraph carefully and select the best topic sentence from the four possible answers that follow the paragraph.
Actually，this idea is far from the truth.The Aborigines have been able to survive for centuries in the harsh environment of the desert because their minds are highly trained in the knowledge of food sources.Since they have no means of storing food，their entire attention must be directed toward their daily search for food.From the youngest child to the oldest member of the tribe，food gathering is the top priority.The Aborigines possess a profound understanding of the life around them.
a. In the earliest years，children are taught when foods ripen，where foods are to be found，when animals sleep for months and produce，and where water is likely to be found.
b. The Aboriginse'in－depth knowledge of the environment around them.
c. The interior of Australia is arid and inhospitable to human beings.
d. Many observers have mistakenly thought that the aborigines，with so few tools.
must have a lower intelligence than other races.
概要写作和应用文写作则不仅要求应考生掌握写概要的基本要领及应用文写作的技巧，同时要求他们将写句子和段落的技巧融合在应用文写作之中，最终写出格式正确、用词得当、表达得体的应用文来。概要（Precis）写作主要是先给出一篇文章，然后给出写概要的指令，如“Read the following passage and write a precis in one paragraph of about 100words.Try to write in your own words as far as possible.”应用文（Practical Writing）写作由三部分组成：便条（Note）、信函（Letter）和个人简历（Resume）。它们写作的形式必须根据要求写出或是某种便条，或是某种信函，或是个人简历。如下面是一则未能赴约而表示歉意的便条写作指令：Write a note of apology about 70－100 words to your friends according to the situation described：
You have made an appointment with your friends to have lunch together.But for some reasons you cannot keep the appointment.Please state your reasons and express your regret for breaking the appointment.You could also express your hope for the gathering.
再如：下面是一则打算上大学继续深造的申请信写作指令：You are planning to further your studies in a college or university.Write an application to that institution.In your letter，provide the necessary information about yourself，tell them your want to study math and find out about the possibility of receiving financial support.（150－200）
应考生在重读誊清稿时，有两点还应牢记：首先，你写出的概要内容必须忠实于原文，或者说精确（accurate）。概要中所有的内容和信息必须来源于原文，既不可篡改原文内容也不能包括原文未涉及到的内容。其次，概要读起来应是一完整连贯的段落。要取得这一完整连贯，就应该使用一些连接词（link－words），如‘but’，‘and’，‘however’，‘also’等连接要点；同样，也可使用诸如‘since’，‘though’，‘even if ’，‘when’，‘after’，‘before’等词。请看下面一例子：
The sentry watched a hawk that hovered overhead，looking for some unsuspecting prey to pounce upon.Then he heard the distant，muffled roar of planes，then silence.For the past week he had been told to take note of everything that happened on the hill within his range of vision，and to report anything suspicious.The hill led to an experimental factory，where new and secret weapons were tested.There was a threat of war and the factory would be invaluable to the enemy.So the approaches to it were watched day in，and day out.
He shifted his position；he felt that he had been crouching in the heather since the beginning of the time，but only a couple of hours of the day's duty had passed.Suddenly he saw something falling from the sky like snow，only it was not snow.[He put out his hand and caught bits of that were drifting near him.They were thin strips of metal to confuse delicate instruments，so that it would not be possible to detect the landing of enemy craf.Next he heard a long，low，continuous roar from the east and saw bundles descending from the sky which looked like umbrellas opening，but which be knew to be parachutes with men hanging from them.He wanted to go at once to give the alarm，but he had to be sure that the parachutes were not his own men out on an exercise.The men were on ground now.One of them pointed in the direction of secret factory and they all began marching toward it.He had no more doubts and set off at once down the hill.He crawled slowly，sometimes on his stomach，sometimes on his side ，weaving decided that he had ample cover and started to run.But he had erred，for bullets were soon whistling past him.He drooped flat on the ground.Nobody came to search for him，so he counted up to a hundred and then began crawling again.He moved tortuously and as silently as he could to his camp at the foot of the hill.]
Describe in not more than 80 words what the sentry saw and did from the moment when the strips of metal fell from the sky until he got back to his camp.Use your own words as far as possible.Do not include anything that is not in the passage.
（Cambridge Lower Certificate in English Examination.）
1.Points（Saw and Did）
1）Put out hands；caught strip metal.
4）Saw men on ground.
5）One pointed；all marched.
11）Silently to camp.
2.Rough Draft （Linking of Points）
When the sentry held out his hand to catch what was falling out of the sky ，he found that it was strips of metal.The bundles began coming down.The sentry waited until men appeared on the ground.One of them pointed and the sentry saw them march towards the factory.Crawling on his stomach and on his side，the sentry moved downhill.He began running when he came to a stream，but dropped down when he was shot at .After counting up to a hundred to himself，he began crawling silently again downhill.
3.Fair Copy （Corrected Draft）
After catching hold of metal strips falling out of the sky，the sentry saw bundles descending and，after a time，some men appeared on the ground.One of them pointed and they all began marching towards the factory.The sentry crawled downhill on his stomach and on his side.When he came to a stream，he began running but dropped down when the men shot at him.He counted up to a hundred，then silently started crawling again towards his camp.
3.称谓（The Salutation or Greeting）如Dear Sir，Gentlemen，。
5.结束语（The Complimentary Close）——如Yours Truly，Yours respectfully等
1.8765 Sunset Street
Hollywood 56 Calif.
May 17 1998
122 Ninghai Road，
4.This is to confirm in writing our telephone conversation of yesterday regarding an interview you have been kind enough to grant me.
Green Book magazine has assigned me a short article on the hibernation of animals.As Curator of Mammals at the Zoological Park，yiu are one of three porminent zoologists I plan to interview before writing the piece from notes I have already carefully researched.The other two to be interviewed are your colleagues，Dr.Fuller and Dr.Meade，of the University staff.
I can match my plan to suit your schedule，but some day early next month would be best for me.I don't plan to bring a photographer as this piece is to be illustrated by rather amazing pictures I already have of hibernating animals.
A self－addressed，stamped envelope is enclosed and I would appreciate a reply as soon as you can arrange a convenient time.
Can you think of a single good reason why you shouldn't spend next weekend with us？I've just been out looking at the garden，and it's beautiful，you'll like it.
Also，I'm going to have a young man here a friend of Alva's.His name is Peter Groesbeck.Other information you can find out for yourself.Bring your bathing suit，we will meet your usual Saturday morning train.
Here are the two tickets I mentioned yesterday for the Beijing Opera“Farewell To My Concubine.”You may bring anybody along with you.I hope you'll enjoy it.
1.Having studied your report carefully，I am convinced that neither of your solutions are correct.（主谓不一致）
Having studied your report carefully，I am convinced that neither of your solutions is correct.
2.When he tried to make a reservation，he found that the restaurant that he likes was completely filled because of a wedding function.（时态错误）
When he tried to make a reservation，he found that the restaurant that he liked was completely filled because of a wedding function.
3.If he made better use of his time，he will be more likely to finish his research.（语气错误）
If he made better use of his time，he would be more likely to finish his research.
4.The climate here is often said to be similar to one of Japan.（代词误用）
The climate here is often said to be similar to one of Japan.
5.The firemem were unable to determine exactly what caused the fire when they said they would continue the investigation.（连接词误用）
The firemen were unable to determine exactly what caused the fire but they said they would continue the investigation.
6.It is often difficult finding'trained men than to get financial support for scientific research.（非谓语动词误用）
It is often difficult to find trained men than to get financial support for scientific research.
7.The guests were shown into a beautiful decorated dining room.（词类误）
The guests were shown itto a beautifully decorated dining room.
8.It is encouraging to note that in recent years，cigarette smokers have been in the decline，especially among the older people.（固定搭配错误）
It is encouraging to note that in recent years，cigarette smokers have been on the decline，especially among the older people.
9.As far as weather passes，the hotter it gets，the better I like it.（固定搭配错误）
As far as weather goes，the hotter it gets，the better I like it.