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浅谈英语写作基础应试技巧

2006-09-14 17:30   【 】【我要纠错

  根据1997年6月全国高等教育自学考试指导委员会最新颁布的《英语写作基础自学考试大纲》的规定,英语写作基础这一课程着重培养考生英语写作的基本技能,重点教授英语写作的最基础内容:句子的组成、段落的写作、概要及应用文写作。通过本课程的学习,要求考生掌握句子、段落以及应用文最基本的写作理论与技巧,以便写出主题较为突出、内容较为充实完善、语言较为通顺流畅、格式符合要求的短文,为学习本科阶段的英语写作课程打下坚实的基础。

  英语写作基础考试题型:《英语写作基础自学考试大纲》的规定“本课程试卷采用的题型主要包括:判断题、改错题、改写题、概要写作、应用文写作等”。判断题、改错题、改写题等主要考核应考生对句子(The Sentence)和段落(The Paragraph)基本知识点如改写句子包括改写掉尾句(periodic sentence)、平行结构(parallel structure)等和判断主题句(topic sentence)等掌握情况;例如:

  Ⅰ。Revise the following sentences according to the requirement

  1.The plan began to shake noticeably as soon as it lifted off the runway.(periodic sentence)

  2.James Joyce's Ulysses,a long and complicated novel and which is on our reading list,has been banned by the school board.(parallel structure)

  Ⅱ。Read the following paragraph carefully and select the best topic sentence from the four possible answers that follow the paragraph.

  Topic sentence:     

  Actually,this idea is far from the truth.The Aborigines have been able to survive for centuries in the harsh environment of the desert because their minds are highly trained in the knowledge of food sources.Since they have no means of storing food,their entire attention must be directed toward their daily search for food.From the youngest child to the oldest member of the tribe,food gathering is the top priority.The Aborigines possess a profound understanding of the life around them.

  a. In the earliest years,children are taught when foods ripen,where foods are to be found,when animals sleep for months and produce,and where water is likely to be found.

  b. The Aboriginse'in-depth knowledge of the environment around them.

  c. The interior of Australia is arid and inhospitable to human beings.

  d. Many observers have mistakenly thought that the aborigines,with so few tools.

  must have a lower intelligence than other races.

  概要写作和应用文写作则不仅要求应考生掌握写概要的基本要领及应用文写作的技巧,同时要求他们将写句子和段落的技巧融合在应用文写作之中,最终写出格式正确、用词得当、表达得体的应用文来。概要(Precis)写作主要是先给出一篇文章,然后给出写概要的指令,如“Read the following passage and write a precis in one paragraph of about 100words.Try to write in your own words as far as possible.”应用文(Practical Writing)写作由三部分组成:便条(Note)、信函(Letter)和个人简历(Resume)。它们写作的形式必须根据要求写出或是某种便条,或是某种信函,或是个人简历。如下面是一则未能赴约而表示歉意的便条写作指令:Write a note of apology about 70-100 words to your friends according to the situation described:

  You have made an appointment with your friends to have lunch together.But for some reasons you cannot keep the appointment.Please state your reasons and express your regret for breaking the appointment.You could also express your hope for the gathering.

  再如:下面是一则打算上大学继续深造的申请信写作指令:You are planning to further your studies in a college or university.Write an application to that institution.In your letter,provide the necessary information about yourself,tell them your want to study math and find out about the possibility of receiving financial support.(150-200)

  从上述的几种题型中,尤其是后三种,我们可以发现,无论是概要、便条还是信函等写作都是一种根据所提供信息的短文写作把这些已知信息写成一篇具有连贯性的概要、便条、信函或个人简历。换言之,就是考核应考生的基本写作能力。

  下面重点讨论怎样写概要和应用文。

  首先谈谈怎样写概要(Precis)。要写好一篇文章的概要应考生应具备两种基本能力。首先应具备理解原文,掌握全文中心思想的能力;其次应具有用简练的语言将原文的中心思想表达出来的能力。一般说来,概要的篇幅为原文的1/3至1/4,因此在写概要时务必注意语言的概括和精练。概要写作一般按下列步骤进行:

  1.认真仔细地阅读原文两遍,理解和掌握全文的内容。

  2.仔细地阅读考题指令,明确了解考题要求,在原文上标出重点,如议论文中的论点 、论据;记叙文中的发展、高潮、结局等。

  3.再一次阅读原文,并将所需要采用的要点列出。要点的记录应尽可能简洁明了。

  4.根据记录的要点写出概要的初稿,并尽可能不参照原文,除非当你需要核实某个要点。这将十分有益于用自己的语言组织内容,而不是照抄原文中的某些词句。完成初稿后应数一数字数,但千万不可在写完每一句句子即数字数。这样不仅浪费宝贵的时间,而且会搅乱写作的思路。

  5.进行一些必要的修改和调整后,誊清完稿,并在最后注明具体字数。

  应考生在重读誊清稿时,有两点还应牢记:首先,你写出的概要内容必须忠实于原文,或者说精确(accurate)。概要中所有的内容和信息必须来源于原文,既不可篡改原文内容也不能包括原文未涉及到的内容。其次,概要读起来应是一完整连贯的段落。要取得这一完整连贯,就应该使用一些连接词(link-words),如‘but’,‘and’,‘however’,‘also’等连接要点;同样,也可使用诸如‘since’,‘though’,‘even if ’,‘when’,‘after’,‘before’等词。请看下面一例子:

  The sentry watched a hawk that hovered overhead,looking for some unsuspecting prey to pounce upon.Then he heard the distant,muffled roar of planes,then silence.For the past week he had been told to take note of everything that happened on the hill within his range of vision,and to report anything suspicious.The hill led to an experimental factory,where new and secret weapons were tested.There was a threat of war and the factory would be invaluable to the enemy.So the approaches to it were watched day in,and day out.

  He shifted his position;he felt that he had been crouching in the heather since the beginning of the time,but only a couple of hours of the day's duty had passed.Suddenly he saw something falling from the sky like snow,only it was not snow.[He put out his hand and caught bits of that were drifting near him.They were thin strips of metal to confuse delicate instruments,so that it would not be possible to detect the landing of enemy craf.Next he heard a long,low,continuous roar from the east and saw bundles descending from the sky which looked like umbrellas opening,but which be knew to be parachutes with men hanging from them.He wanted to go at once to give the alarm,but he had to be sure that the parachutes were not his own men out on an exercise.The men were on ground now.One of them pointed in the direction of secret factory and they all began marching toward it.He had no more doubts and set off at once down the hill.He crawled slowly,sometimes on his stomach,sometimes on his side ,weaving decided that he had ample cover and started to run.But he had erred,for bullets were soon whistling past him.He drooped flat on the ground.Nobody came to search for him,so he counted up to a hundred and then began crawling again.He moved tortuously and as silently as he could to his camp at the foot of the hill.]

  Describe in not more than 80 words what the sentry saw and did from the moment when the strips of metal fell from the sky until he got back to his camp.Use your own words as far as possible.Do not include anything that is not in the passage.

  (Cambridge Lower Certificate in English Examination.)

  MODEL

  1.Points(Saw and Did)

  1)Put out hands;caught strip metal.

  2)Saw bundles.

  3)Waited.

  4)Saw men on ground.

  5)One pointed;all marched.

  6)Went downhill.

  7)Crawled—stomach,side—to stream.

  8)Started running.

  9)Dropped flat(why?—bullets)。

  10)Counted 100;crawled.

  11)Silently to camp.

  2.Rough Draft (Linking of Points)

  When the sentry held out his hand to catch what was falling out of the sky ,he found that it was strips of metal.The bundles began coming down.The sentry waited until men appeared on the ground.One of them pointed and the sentry saw them march towards the factory.Crawling on his stomach and on his side,the sentry moved downhill.He began running when he came to a stream,but dropped down when he was shot at .After counting up to a hundred to himself,he began crawling silently again downhill.

  (95 words)

  3.Fair Copy (Corrected Draft)

  After catching hold of metal strips falling out of the sky,the sentry saw bundles descending and,after a time,some men appeared on the ground.One of them pointed and they all began marching towards the factory.The sentry crawled downhill on his stomach and on his side.When he came to a stream,he began running but dropped down when the men shot at him.He counted up to a hundred,then silently started crawling again towards his camp.

  (80 words)

  不管是私人信函、商业信函还是各类便条都是重要的交际形式。所以,要写好各种信函和便条,首先要掌握其写作的语言,同时必须熟悉并运用恰当地表达内容的方式及格式。只有做到这两点,考试时才能真正做到胸有成竹,得心应手。就格式而言,不论写哪一种都有其特定的格式。英语书信,在形式上可分为下面六个部分:

  1.信头(The Heading):包括发信人地址和写信日期。

  2.受信者(Inside Address):包括受信人姓名、地址。

  3.称谓(The Salutation or Greeting)如Dear Sir,Gentlemen,。

  4.正文(The Body):是信的主要部分,包括写信人所要表达叙述的事情。

  5.结束语(The Complimentary Close)——如Yours Truly,Yours respectfully等

  6.签名(The Signature)。

  现举一实例说明英文书信格式:

  1.8765 Sunset Street

  Hollywood 56 Calif.

  U.S.A

  May 17 1998

  2.Mr.Alan Liu

  122 Ninghai Road,

  Nanjing P.R.C.

  3.Dear Sir,

  4.This is to confirm in writing our telephone conversation of yesterday regarding an interview you have been kind enough to grant me.

  Green Book magazine has assigned me a short article on the hibernation of animals.As Curator of Mammals at the Zoological Park,yiu are one of three porminent zoologists I plan to interview before writing the piece from notes I have already carefully researched.The other two to be interviewed are your colleagues,Dr.Fuller and Dr.Meade,of the University staff.

  I can match my plan to suit your schedule,but some day early next month would be best for me.I don't plan to bring a photographer as this piece is to be illustrated by rather amazing pictures I already have of hibernating animals.

  A self-addressed,stamped envelope is enclosed and I would appreciate a reply as soon as you can arrange a convenient time.

  5.Sincerely yours,

  6.John Warner

  写这封信的人用正式而又简单的语言,开门见山而又不失礼貌地说出了写这封信的目的——只是核实他要确定的事实。

  便条和书信的格式基本相同,只不过要比正式书信要简单一些。如可省略信头、结语等。信函和便条的最大区别在于表达的方式不同:前者要求用正式的书面语言,而后者则常常使用非正式的口头语言。请看下面一个请柬:

  Dear Lucy,

  Can you think of a single good reason why you shouldn't spend next weekend with us?I've just been out looking at the garden,and it's beautiful,you'll like it.

  Also,I'm going to have a young man here a friend of Alva's.His name is Peter Groesbeck.Other information you can find out for yourself.Bring your bathing suit,we will meet your usual Saturday morning train.

  Affectionately,

  Alan Liu

  请看下面一则留言条(Message):

  July 20,1998

  Jack,

  Here are the two tickets I mentioned yesterday for the Beijing Opera“Farewell To My Concubine.”You may bring anybody along with you.I hope you'll enjoy it.

  Xiao Zhang

  由于便条主要是写给朋友和熟人的,形式上可简单化,语言上可口语化。但如果便条是写给陌生人、生意上的合作伙伴或年尊者,语言就应该较正式化。还有一点值得强调的是,请柬等便条一定要写得直接、简明、完整;时间、地点、对象都应交代的一清二楚,千万不可使人模棱两可,捉摸不定。

  一般说来,试卷上所有试题做完后,仍应有余留的几分钟。在这几分钟里,应从改错(Proof-reading&Error Correction)的角度出发,重点检查语言错误。着重点应在语法结构和词语等方面。请看下列例子:

  1.Having studied your report carefully,I am convinced that neither of your solutions are correct.(主谓不一致)

  Having studied your report carefully,I am convinced that neither of your solutions is correct.

  2.When he tried to make a reservation,he found that the restaurant that he likes was completely filled because of a wedding function.(时态错误)

  When he tried to make a reservation,he found that the restaurant that he liked was completely filled because of a wedding function.

  3.If he made better use of his time,he will be more likely to finish his research.(语气错误)

  If he made better use of his time,he would be more likely to finish his research.

  4.The climate here is often said to be similar to one of Japan.(代词误用)

  The climate here is often said to be similar to one of Japan.

  5.The firemem were unable to determine exactly what caused the fire when they said they would continue the investigation.(连接词误用)

  The firemen were unable to determine exactly what caused the fire but they said they would continue the investigation.

  6.It is often difficult finding'trained men than to get financial support for scientific research.(非谓语动词误用)

  It is often difficult to find trained men than to get financial support for scientific research.

  7.The guests were shown into a beautiful decorated dining room.(词类误)

  The guests were shown itto a beautifully decorated dining room.

  8.It is encouraging to note that in recent years,cigarette smokers have been in the decline,especially among the older people.(固定搭配错误)

  It is encouraging to note that in recent years,cigarette smokers have been on the decline,especially among the older people.

  9.As far as weather passes,the hotter it gets,the better I like it.(固定搭配错误)

  As far as weather goes,the hotter it gets,the better I like it.

  此外还要大小写是否正确,标点符号使用恰当与否,应用文的格式是否正确。

  以上简要地谈了概要和应用文的应试和写作技巧。但真正要取得优越的成绩,还得依靠平时打下扎实的写作基础。要有扎实的写作基础,就必须“读破万卷书”,才能“下笔如有神”。所以平时一定要勤读书,勤练笔;再加上适当的方法和技巧,不断地训练和培养自身写作技能,一定能写出“主题较突出、内容较为完善、语言较为通顺、格式符合要求的短文”。

本文转载链接:浅谈英语写作基础应试技巧

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