Chapter 4 Transition to the Modern Age
1.What do you know about the nature and consequences of the Wars of the Roses？
In 1453 England was at last defeated in the Hundred Years‘ War， at this time power in England was in the hands of a number of rich and ambitious nobles. Because the Hundred Years’ War ended，they had to seek a new outlet for their ambition by a attempt to dominate the government at home . There was also a mass of unemployed soldiers. In 1455，war broke out between the House of Lancaster，symbolized by the red rose，and that of York，symbolized by the white rose.
Although the Wars of the Roses were waged intermittently for thirty years， ordinary people were little affected. Feudalism received its death blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened and discredited. The king‘s power became supreme. From then on，five Tudor monarchs ruled England and Wales for over two hundred years.
2.Why and how did the Reformation happen in England？ And what was the effect？
The reform began as a struggle for a divorce and ended in freedom from the Papacy（罗马教皇）。
They stressed the power of the monarch and certainly strengthened Henry‘s position. Parliament had never done such a long and important piece of work before； His attack on the Pope’s power encouraged many critics of the abuses of the Catholic Church to expect some movement wawy from Catholicism towards Protestant ideology.
3.How did Queen Elizabeth deal with the religious problem after she became Queen of the country？
Elizabeth‘s religious reform was a compromise of views. She broke Mary’s ties with Rome and restored her father‘s independent church of England， i.e. keeping to Catholic doctrines and practices but to be free of the Papal control. Her religious settlement waas unacceptable to both the extreme Protestants known as Puritans and to ardent Catholics.
4.What do you know about the English Renaissance？
The English Renaissance had 5characteristics：1）English culture was revitalized not so much directly by the classics as by contemporary Europeans under the influence of the classics； 2）England was a great extent independent of the course of history elsewhere in Europe； 3）owing to the great genius of the 14th century Chaucer，the native literature was sufficiently vigorous and experienced in assimilating foreign influences without being subjected by them； 4）English Renaissance literature is primarily artistic，rather than philosophical and scholarly；and 5）the Renaissance coincided with the Reformation in England.
5.What was the absolute rule of James I of England？ How did the Puritans think about the King‘s rule？
He is a firm believer in the Divine Right of Kings.
In early time they were happy to have James as king because the Scottish Church was a pure Protestant Church with democratically elected officials.but later they increasingly suspected him of being a secret Catholic. And James had little sympathy with their demands.
6.What do you know about the Gunpowder Plot of 1605？
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was the most famous of the Cathlic conspiracies. On November 5， 1605， a few fanatical Catholics attempt to blow King James and his ministers up in the House of Parliament where Guy Fawkes hadn planted barrels of gun-powdeer in the cellars. The immediate result was the execution of Fawkes and his fellow-conspirators and the imposition of severe anti-Catholic laws.
7.How did the Civil Wars break out？What were the consequences of the Civil Wars？
King Charles I rejected the demands of the Parliament ，and the Parliament concluded that the only way it could impress it views on such a king would be to defeat him in battle.
Charles was condemned to death.
The English Civil War not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shook the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe.It is generally regarded as the beginning of modern world history.
8.What were the Commonwealth and the protectectorate？
After king Charle‘s execution in 1649， Oliver Cromwell and the Long Parliament declared England a Commonwealth. One of Cromwell’s first acts was to crush without mercy a rebellion in Ireland. Another was the suppression of the Levellers， a group within his own army.
In 1653， Cromwell became Lord protector of the Commonwealth of England. He instituted direct military rule by dividing the coutry into 11 districts commanded by major generals. The characteristics of this Period were：the destruction of numerous treasures in churches and cathedrals throughout the country； establishment of colonies and colonial trade； religious toleration for all；and greater understanding of the economy；
9.Why did the Restoration take place？
When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son，Richard，The regime began to collapse. One of Cromwell‘s generals occupied London and arranged for new parliamentary elections. The Parliament thus was elected in 1660， and to resolve the crisis， it asked the late king’s son to return from his exile in France as king Charles II， It was called the Restoration.
10.How did the “Glorious Revolution”break out？ What was the significance of it？
In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James ， who was brought up in exile in Europe， was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious views. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40years ago. So the Protestant king ， William of Orange， to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively sommoth， with no bloodshed，nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.William and his wife Mary were both protestants and became co-monarchs. They accepted the Bill of Rights. It‘s the beginning of the age of constitutional monarchy.