Chapter 6 The Economy
1.What are the three periods as far as the evolution of the British economy is concerned？
The three periods of the evolution of the British economy are：steady development in the 50s and 60s，economic recession in the 70s and economic recover in the 80s.
2.What measures did the Thatcher government take to improve the nation‘s economy？
1） Macroeconomic measures were directed towards bringing down the rate of inflation and achieving price stability.
2） Microeconomic policies were aimed at working with the grain of market forces by encouraging enterprise，efficiency and flexibility（弹性）。
3.Why is British coal mining called a “sick” industry todayf？
Today British coal mining is decling.The numbers of miners，collieries and the total output have fallen.The reasons include the exhaustion of old mines，costly extraction，poor old equipment，little money being invested，fall in demand due to imports of cleaner，cheaper and more efficient fuels.
4.Where were oil and natural gas found in Britain？How important are they to Britain‘s economy？
Oil and natural gas are found under the North Sea.Today，Britain not only self-sufficient in oil but also has a surplus for export.The transport and domestic heating systems mostly depend on oil. So does the food supply，because most agriculture is highly mechanized.
5.What are the main problems associated with Britain‘s iron and steel industry today？
Britain was the first nation to build a large iron and steel induxtry，but now many problems arise：1）Local supplies of iron ore have become exhausted；2）Old-fashioned ovens for making coke are not able to recover valuable by-products； 3）The blast furnaces，steelworks and rolling mills are often separated from eachother，which cannot perform as well as more compact operations do ； 4）Many steelworks have to be closed down，causing major unemployment in a area.
6.Where are the main textile producng regions in Britain？What are the reason behind the decline of Britain‘s textile industry？
The main textile producing regions of Britain are now the East Midlands，Yorkshire and Humberside，and Northern Ireland.
1） Exports of textiles have not competed well with those of other foreign producers who have manged to produce cheaper good.
2） There has been a rise in cheaper imports of textiles to Britain from foreign producers.
3） Poor and outdated management decisions have caused problems.
4） Substitutions of human-made fibers have been made for natural fibres such as wool，cotton，jute and linen.
5） An improvement of output per worker has been achieved，due to machanization.
7.What are new industries and where can they be found in Britain？
New industries are microprocessors and computers，biotechnology and other high-tech industries.They can be found in three areas：the area between London and South Wales；the Cambridge area of East Anglia and the area between Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland.The third area is the most spectacular of the three and is often called the “silicon Glen”。
8.Britain‘s agriculture is highly mechanized，Give examples to show this.
Britain‘s agriculture is highly mechanized.For example， only 3%of the population are farmers but they manage 70% of the land area.Very modern farmers use computer today. They talk about tecnological arming.The new farming has been called“agribusiness”because it is equipped and managed like an industrial business.The emphasis is upon intensive farming， designed to give the maximum output of crops and animals.
9.What are the main farming types in Britain？Where are they best suited in Britain.
1） Arable farming emphasizes crop production and occurs on the more fertile soil.the chief areas are the East and South-East.
2） Dairy farming rears cattle primarily for milk production.Western regions with moderate rainfall，mild winters and coool summers are often important dairying areas.
3） Stock farming rears livestock primarily for meat.It is the chief king of farming in the North and West of Britain.
4） Mixed farming has elements of cattle-rearing and crop-growing.it is in most of rural Britain.
5） Hill farming with sheep and cattle is found in areas with poorer soils and rougher pastures.（rocky mountain）
6） Market gardening is the growing of vegetables and fruit which can be rapidly transported to market while fresh.It is often found near large urban areas.