Chapter 3 The Shaping of the Nation
1.What was feudalism like in England under the rule of William the Conqueror？
Under the rule of William the Conqueror，the feudal system in England was completely established. According to this system， the king owned all the land personally.William gave his barons large estates in returnfor military services and a proportion of the land‘s produce.These estates were scattered all over the king. Then， the barons parceled out land to the lesser nobles，knights and freemen，also in return for goods and services.At the bottom of the feudal scale were the serfs. One peculiar feature of the feudal system of England was that all landowners must take the oath of allegiance not only to their immediate lord，but also to the king.
2.How did King Henry II consolidate the monarchy？
Henry II took some measure to consolidate the monarchy. He forced the Flemish mercenaries to have England； recalled grants of Royal lands made By Stephen；demolished scores of castles built in Stephen‘s time；strengthened and widened the powers of his sheriffs and relied for armed support upon a militia composed of English freemen.
3.How did king Henry II reform the courts and the law？ Henry II was the first king of the House of Plantagenet.he greatly strengthened the king‘s Court and extended its judicial work.In Henry II’s reign a common law，which over-rode local law and private law.In Henry‘s day the jury system was at last replacing old English ordeals by fire and water and old Norman trials by battle.
4.What was the quarrel between king Henry II and Thomas Becket？ The Great Council of Henry II drew up the Constitutions of Clarendon in 1164 to increase the jurisdiction of the civil courts at the expense of the church courts.Becket reluctantly signed the Constitutions.but shortly afterwards rejected them.Henry II was so angry that he drove Becket into exile.
5.What was the contents and the significance of the Great charter？ Contents：no tax should be made without the approval of the Grand Council；no freeman should be arrested，imprisoned，or deprived of his property except by the law of the land；the Church should possess all its rights，together with freedom of elections；London and other towns should retain their ancient rights and privileges，and there should be the same weights and measures throughout the country.
It was a statement of the feudal and legal relationship between the Crown and the barons，a guarantee of the freedom of the Church and a limitation of the power of the king.
6.Why and how did the English Parliament come into being？ Henry III‘s many measure was brought matters between he and barons to a head.and the barons force the king to swear and accept the Provisions of Oxford.
Simon de Montfort summoned in 1265 the Great Council to meet at Westminster， together with two knights from each country and two burgesses from each town，a metting which has been seen as that the earliest parliament.
7.What were the causes of the Hundred Years‘ War？ The causes were partly territorial and partly economic.
8.What harm did the Black Death do to the English society？ The Black Death swept through England in 1348-1349 without warning and any cure.It reduced England‘s population from four million to two million and the economic consequences were far reaching.
Much land was left untended and there was a terrible shortage of labour. The surviving peasants were in favourable position to demand higher wages and changed their serfdom into paid labourers. So the government issued statutes of Labourers to protect the interests of landowners. These repressive measures and a series of poll taxes caused much hatred and resulted in the Peasant Uprising in 1381.
9.what do you know about Wat Tyler‘s Uprising？ The uprising broke out in Kent and Essex in 1381 and was led by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw. Tyler led the mared villagers to occupy London. The king was forced to accept their demands. Most of the rebels dispersed and went home， while Tyler and other leader stayed on for more rights. Tyler was killed at a meeting with the king，who suppressed the Uprising brutally.
Although the Uprising failed，it had great importance in English history. It directed against the rich clergy， the lawyers and the landowners. It effectively blew the serfdom，and a new class of yeomen farmers emerged，paving the way for the development of capitalism.
10.Who were the Lollards？what role did they play in the Peasant Uprising of 1381？
The Lollards were poor priests and travelling preachers who were John Wyclif‘s followers in the 14th century. They went about preaching the equality of men before god. The most famous one was John Ball. Their ideas provided mental preparation for the Peasant Uprising of 1381.