Chapter 1 land and people
1.what are the differences between Britain and the British Isles， Great Britain，England，the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth？ The British Isles，Greant Britina and England are geographical names， no the official names of the country，while the official name is the United Kingdom，but the full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.The British Commonwealth is a free association of independent countries that were once colonies of Britian.
2.Describe the geographical position of Britian？
Britain is an island country. It lies in the north Atlantic Ocean off the north coast of Europe.It is separated from the rest of Europe by the English channel in the south and the North Sea in the east.
3.Whereabouts in Great Britain are mostly highland and lowland？
The north and west of Britain are mainly highland， while the south and south-east are mostly lowlands.
4.Does Britain have a favourable climate？ why？ Yes，it has a favourable climate， because it has a maritime type of climate——winters are mild，not too cold and summers are cool， not too hot.It has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year.It has a small range of temperature，too.
5.what are the factors which influence the climate in Britain？ Which part of Britain has the most rainfall and which part is the driest？ The factors which influence the climate in Britain are the following three：1）The surrounding waters balance the seasonal differences；2）the prevailing south-west winds bring warm and wet air in winter and keep the temperatures moderate；3）the North Atlantic Drift，a warm current，passes the western coast of the British Isles and warms them.
The northwestern part has the most rainfall，while the south-eastern corner is the driest.
6.Describe the distribution of Britain‘s population.
Britain has a population of 57 million. It is densely populated， with an average of 237people per square kilometre. It is also very unevenly distributed ， with 90%of the population in urban areas，10% in rural areas. Geographically， most British people live in England. Of the total of 57 million people， 47 million live in England， 14 million live in London and Southeastern England.
7.What are the three natural zones in Scotland？ The three natural zones in Scotland are ： the Highlands in the north， the central Lowlands ，and the southern Uplands.
8.What is the difference between the ancestors of the English and Scots， Welsh and Irish？
The ancestors of the English are Anglo-Saxons，while the Scots，Welsh and rish are Celts.
9.What are the differences in character and speech between southern England and northern England？ How do the Welsh keep their language and culture alive？
The Welsh are emotional and cheerful people.The Scots are hospitable ，generous and friendly.Irish are known for their charm and vivacity as well as for the beauty of their Irish girls.
Throughout the year they have festivals of song and dance and poetry called Eisteddfodau.On these occasions competitions are held in Welsh poetry，music，singing and art and in this way they keep the Welsh language and Welsh culture alive.
10.What is the main problem in Northern Ireland？
Hundreds of years ago Scots and English Protestants were sent to live in Northern Ireland.Since then there has been bitter fighting between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics.The former are the dominant group，while the latter are seeking more social，plitical and economic apportunities.The british Government and the government of Ireland are now working together to bring peace to Northern Ireland.
Chapter 2 The Origins of a Nation
1.What do you know about the Roman invasion of Britain？
In 55 BC and 54 BC， Julius Caesar， a Roman general， invaded Britain twice. In AD 43， the Emperor Claudius invaded Britain successfully.For nearly 400 years Britain was under the Roman occupation. Though it was never a total occupation. British recorded history begins with the Roman invasion.
2.Why was the Roman influence on Britain so limited？
Britain was under the Roman occupation for nearly 400 years. The Romans built many towns，roads，baths，temples and buildings.They make good use of Britain‘s natural resources.They also brought the new religion，Christianity，to Britain.However，although Britain became part of the Roman Empire，Roman influence upon Britain was very limited.The Romans treated the Britains as a subject people of slave class.they never intermarried.The romans has no influence on the language or culture of ordinary Britains.
3.Who were the Anglo-Saxons and how did the Heptarchy come into being？
The Anglo-Saxons referred to the three Teutonic tribes who invaded Britain in the mid-5th century.They were Jutes，Saxons and Angles.
In the 7th century， the Anglo-Saxons invaded Britain and the three tribes settled in different part of Britain which was divided into many small kingdoms of Kent，Sussex，Wessex，East Anglia，Mercia and Northumbria.So they have been given the name of Heptarchy.
4.How were the early Anglo-Saxons converted to Christainity？
The Anglo-Saxons brought their own Teutonic religion to Britain when they invaded Britain，and Christianity was only a fringe belief.So， in 579，Pope Gregory I sent St. Augustine to England to convert the heathen English to Christianity.Augustine was very successful in converting the king and the nobility， and became the first Archbishop of Canterbury.But the conversion of the common people was largely due to the missionary activities of the monks in the north.Many samll monasteries sprang up throughout the ocuntry.
5.What contributions did the early Anglo-Sasons make to the English state？
Though the anglo-Saxons were brutal people， they laid the foundation of the English state.Firstly， the modern names of “England”and “English”derived from the Angles.Secondly，they divided the country into shires， with shire courts and shire reaves， or sheriffs， responsible for administering law.Thirdly ，they divised the narrow-strip，three-field farming system which continued to the 18th century.Fourthly ， they also eatablished the manorial system， whereby the lord of the manor collected taxes and organized the local army.Finally ， they crated the Witan to advise the king， the basis of the Privy Council which still exists today.
6.Who were the Vikings and how did they invade Britain.？
The Vikings were the Norwegians and the Danes from Denmark.They attacked various part of England from the end of the 8th century. They became a serious problem in the 9th century，especially between 835and 878. They even managed to capture York， an important center of Christianity in 867. They gained control of the north and east of England.
7.What do you know about king Alfred ？ What makes him worthy of the title of “Alfred the Great”？
Alfred was the king of Wessex. He defeated the Danes who attacked England and reached an agreement with them in 879. The Danes gained control of the north and east， while Alfred ruled the rest. He also converted some leading Danes into Christains.
Alfred is known as “the father of the British navy” as he founded a strong fleet to beat the Danes at sea， to protect the coasts and to encourage trade. He recogonized the Saxon army to make it more efficient. He even translated Bede‘s Ecclesiastial History of the English people from Latin to English. He also establish schools and formulated a legal system. All this makes him worthy of his title“Alfred the Great”。
8.Why did the William the Conqueror invade England after Edward‘s death？
It was said the king Edward had promised the English throne to William， but the Witan chose Harold as king. So ， William led his army to invade England. In October 1066， during the important battle of Hastings， William defeated Harold and killed him. On Christmas Day， William was crowned king of England， thus beginning the Norman Conquest of England.
9.what were the consequences of the Norman conquest？
The Norman Conquest of 1066 is one of the best known events in English history， It brought about many consequences.
William confiscated almost the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxons rule with a strong Norman government.So the feudal system was conpletely established in England. Relations with the continent were opened， and civilization and commerce were extended. Normand-French culture，language，manners，and architecture were introduced.The church was brought into closer connection with Roma，and the courts were separated from the civil courts.
10.Why do we say that the English nation is a mixture of nationalities of different orgins？
The population of Britain is made up of the English ，the Scotish，the Welsh，the Irish，the Northern Irish and other peoples. The formation is complicated because England was invaded by different races at various times from Europe.
Besides the early settles，the Iberians，and the Celts，including Gaels and Britons， Roman occupied Britain for nearly 400 years after 55BC. Then the invasions of Anglo-Saxons helped to form English race and language and laid the foundation of the English state. After that， was the invasions of the Vikings and Danes.Finally， in 1066， William of Normandy invaded England and began the age of the Norman Conquest which resulted in great French influence.
Therefore，many different people of different origins are living in Britain.That‘s the reason why we say English nation is a mixture of nationalities of different origins.