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07年自考“英语国家概况”资料(15)

2007-05-22 15:25   【 】【我要纠错

  Chapter 7 Government and Administration

  1.What is a constitutional monarchy?When did it begin in Britain?

  The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy:the head of State is a king or a queen.it going back to at least the 9th century.

  2.What is the role of the Monarchy in the British government/

  the sovereign is the symbol of the whole nation. In law,he/she is head of the executive,and integral part of the legislature,head of the judiciary,the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the “supreme governor”of the established Church to England.

  3.What are the main functions of Parliament?

  The main functions of Parliament are:1)to pass laws;2)to provide the means of carrying on the work of government by voting for taxation;3)to examine government policy and administration,including proposals for expenditure;4)to debate the major issue of the day.

  4.What does the Cabinet consists of ?What does the collective responsibility of Cabinet Government mean?

  The Cabinet usually consists of about 20 most senior ministers who are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.Ministers are responsible collectively to Parliament for all Cabinet decisions;individual Ministers are responsible to all Cabinet decisions;individual Ministers are responsible to Parliament for the work of their departments.

  5.Who does the Privy Council consists of ?Do you think it is very powerful now?why(not)?

  Its membership is about 400,and includes all Cabinet ministers,the Speaker of the House of Commons,the Archibishops of Canterbury and York,and senior British and Commonwealth statesmen.

  Today its role is largely formal,advising the sovereign to approve certain government decressand issuing royal proclamations.

  6.Who are the members of the House of Lords?What is the function of the House of Lords/

  The house of Lords is made up of the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal.

  The main function of the House of Lords is to bring the wide experience of its members into the process of lawmaking.

  7.What are the two major parties in Britain?

  The two major parties are the Conservative Party and the Labour Party.

  8.How many constituencies are there in Britain today?How many members are there in the House of Commons?

  There are 651 constituencies in Britain and 651 members in the House of Commons.

  9.How often does a general election take place?

  A general Election must be held every five years and is often held at more frequent intervals.

  10.What are the responsibilities of the County Council and the District Council?

  County councils provide large-scale services,while district councils are responsible for the more local ones. At present in England,county councils are responsible for strategic planning, transport planning, highways,traffic regulation, education, consumer protection, refuse disposal, police,the fire service, libraries and personal social services.District councils are responsible for environmental health,housing and refuse collection.

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