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英语国家概况精讲系列(十三)

2007-01-11 16:44   【 】【我要纠错

  英语国家概况精讲系列(十三)

  I. Trade Unions and the Labour Party

  工会和工党

  1. The Trade Union Act of 1871 legalized the trade unions and gave financial security.

  1871年通过的《工会法》使工会合法化并给其财政保障。

  2. The Labor Party had its origin in the Independent Labor Party(ILP), which was formed in January, 1893. In 1900, representatives of trade unions, the ILP, and a number of small socialist societies set up the Labor Representation Committee (LRC)。 The LRC changed its name to the Labor Party for the general election called for in 1906.

  工党起源于独立工党,于1893年1月成立。1900年,工会代表,独立工党和许多小型社会主义社团一起成立了工人代表委员会。1906年的大选迫使工人代表委员会及时更名为工党。

  II. Colonial Expansion

  殖民扩张

  1. The growth of dominions

  自治领的兴起

  English colonial expansion began with the colonization of Newfoundland in 1583. Encouraged by Britain‘s control of the seas, especially by the rising tide of emigration, British colonialists stepped up their expansion to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, in the late 18th and the early 19th centuries. By 1900, Britain had built up a big empire, “on which the sun never set”。 It consisted of a vast number of protectorates, Crown colonies, spheres of influence, and self-governing dominions. It included 25% of the world’s population and area.

  英国殖民扩张开始于1583年纽芬兰的殖民化。在18世纪末、19世纪初,受到海外移民浪潮的鼓舞,英国殖民者很快加他们的扩张到加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰。到1900年英国已建立了“日不落”的大英帝国,包括受保护国、英国殖民地、势力范围和自治领,占世界人口与面积的25%.

  Canada was ceded to Britain by the 1763 Treaty of Paris. French rights were guaranteed by the Quebec Act of 1774. The Canada Act of 1791 divided Canada into Upper Canada where the British had settled, and Lower Canada populated by the French. The British North America Act of 1867 established Canada as a dominion.

  1763年签订的《巴黎条约》将加拿大割让给英国。1774年的《魁北克法》保证了法国的权益。之后,1791年《加拿娃哈哈》把加拿大分为上加拿大和下加拿大,前者是英国人的定居地,后者是法国人的居住点。1867年《英国北美法案》确定加拿大为自治领。

  English began to transport convicts to Australia in 1788. Free settlement began in 1816, and no convicts were sent to Australia after 1840. The gold rushes (1851-1892) brought more people to Australia, and in 1901 the six self-governing wer united in one dominion-the independent Commonwealth of Australia.

  1788年英国人开始把囚犯流放到澳大利亚。1816年开始可以自由定居,1840年后囚犯不再流放到澳大利亚。1851年至1892年的淘金热使更多的人拥到澳洲。1901年,六个自治领统一为一个自治领—澳大利亚独立联邦。

  New Zealand became a separate colony of Britain in 1841, achieved self-government in 1857, became a dominion under the British crown in 1907 and was made completely independent in 1931.

  1841年新西兰成为独立殖民地,1857年实现自治,1907年成为英皇属下的自治领,1931年完全独立。

  1. The Conquest of India

  征服印度

  The British East India Company established in 1600. By 1819 the British conquest of most India was almost complete. After the muting of Bengal army in 1857, the control of India passed to the British Crown and Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1877.

  1600年英国东印度公司的建立是经济渗透的实例。到1819年英国对印度的征服已基本完成。1857年东印度公司孟加拉军队的当地士兵发动兵变后,1858年印度改由英国君主统治。1877年维多利来女王正式成为印度女皇。

  2. The Scramble for Africa

  对非洲的掠夺

  At the beginning of the 19th century British possessions were confined to forts and slave trading posts on the west coast. Over the 19th century the interior of Africa was gradually discovered and colonized by Europeans. Britain led the way in the race. Apart from the colonies in the South and West, Britain was also involved in the North East in Egypt and the Sudan.

  19世纪初英国的占领地局限于西海岸的堡垒和奴隶交易点。整个19世纪欧洲人逐渐发现并殖民了非洲内陆。在这场瓜分竞赛中英国占了较大的优势。除了不断扩张的南部和西部殖民地后,英国又凯觎东北的埃及和苏丹。

  3. Aggression against China

  侵略中国

  In 1840, the Opium War broke out between Britain and China. Since then, Britain gradually invaded many coastal areas and imposed a series of unequal treaties upon China.

  1840年英国和中国发动了鸦片战争。从那时起,英国逐渐侵略了中国的许多沿海城市,并签定了许多不平等条约。

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