I. Trade Unions and the Labour Party
1. The Trade Union Act of 1871 legalized the trade unions and gave financial security.
2. The Labor Party had its origin in the Independent Labor Party（ILP）， which was formed in January， 1893. In 1900， representatives of trade unions， the ILP， and a number of small socialist societies set up the Labor Representation Committee （LRC）。 The LRC changed its name to the Labor Party for the general election called for in 1906.
II. Colonial Expansion
1. The growth of dominions
English colonial expansion began with the colonization of Newfoundland in 1583. Encouraged by Britain‘s control of the seas， especially by the rising tide of emigration， British colonialists stepped up their expansion to Canada， Australia， and New Zealand， in the late 18th and the early 19th centuries. By 1900， Britain had built up a big empire， “on which the sun never set”。 It consisted of a vast number of protectorates， Crown colonies， spheres of influence， and self-governing dominions. It included 25% of the world’s population and area.
Canada was ceded to Britain by the 1763 Treaty of Paris. French rights were guaranteed by the Quebec Act of 1774. The Canada Act of 1791 divided Canada into Upper Canada where the British had settled， and Lower Canada populated by the French. The British North America Act of 1867 established Canada as a dominion.
English began to transport convicts to Australia in 1788. Free settlement began in 1816， and no convicts were sent to Australia after 1840. The gold rushes （1851-1892） brought more people to Australia， and in 1901 the six self-governing wer united in one dominion-the independent Commonwealth of Australia.
New Zealand became a separate colony of Britain in 1841， achieved self-government in 1857， became a dominion under the British crown in 1907 and was made completely independent in 1931.
1. The Conquest of India
The British East India Company established in 1600. By 1819 the British conquest of most India was almost complete. After the muting of Bengal army in 1857， the control of India passed to the British Crown and Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1877.
2. The Scramble for Africa
At the beginning of the 19th century British possessions were confined to forts and slave trading posts on the west coast. Over the 19th century the interior of Africa was gradually discovered and colonized by Europeans. Britain led the way in the race. Apart from the colonies in the South and West， Britain was also involved in the North East in Egypt and the Sudan.
3. Aggression against China
In 1840， the Opium War broke out between Britain and China. Since then， Britain gradually invaded many coastal areas and imposed a series of unequal treaties upon China.