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英语国家概况精讲系列(八)

2007-01-11 16:27   【 】【我要纠错

  英语国家概况精讲系列(八)

  III. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

  伊莉莎白一世(1558年-1603年)

  Elizabeths religious reform and her foreign policy

  伊莉莎白的宗教改革和外交政策

  Elizabeths religious reform was a compromise of views. She broke Marys ties with Rome and restored her fathers independent Church of England, i.e. keeping to Catholic doctrines and practices but to be free of the Papal control. He religious settlement was unacceptable to both the extreme Protestants known as Puritans and to ardent Catholics.

  For nearly 30 years Elizabeth successfully played off against each other the two great Catholic powers, France and Spain, and prevented England from getting involved in any major European conflict. Through her marriage alliances which were never materialized, Elizabeth managed to maintain a friendly relationship with France. So England wad able to face the danger from Spain.

  伊莉莎白的宗教改革是各种观点的妥协。她中断玛丽与罗马的关系,恢复父王独立的英格兰教会,也就是说保持天主教教条及习俗,但不受教皇控制。她的宗教和解既不被极端的新教徒(即清教徒)所接受,也不为虔诚的天主教徒所接受。

  近30年的时间,伊莉莎白成功地令两大天主教强国法国和西班牙互相斗杀,从而免于英国卷入任何主要的欧洲国的冲突。通过她从未具体化的联姻,伊莉莎白设法与法国维持友好关系,因此英国能面对来自西班牙的危险。

  IV. The English Renaissance

  英国文艺复兴

  Distinctive features of the English Renaissance

  英国文艺复兴的特点

  1) English culture was revitalized not so much directly by the classics as by contemporary Europeans under the influence of the classics;

  2) England as an insular country followed a course of social and political history which was to a great extent independent of the course of history elsewhere in Europe;

  3) Owing to the great genius of the 14th century poet Chaucer, the native literature was sufficiently vigorous and experienced in assimilating for foreign influences without being subjected by them;

  4) English Renaissance coincided with the Reformation in England.

  英国文艺复兴的五个特点:1)英国文化的复兴并不是直接通过古典作品,崦是通过受古典作品影响同时代的欧洲人实现的;2)英格兰作为一个与大陆隔离的国家,其社会历史进程很大程度上独立于欧洲其它国家;3)由于14世纪伟大的天才诗人乔叟的出现,英国本国文学得以蓬勃发展,能够在吸收外国文学影响的同时,并未处于从属地位;4)英国文艺复兴文学首先是艺术的,其次才是哲学的和学术的;5)文艺复兴和英格兰的宗教改革在时间上有所交叉。

  VI. The Civil Wars and their consequences

  Because of the absolute rule of Charles, the confrontation between Charles I and the parliament developed into the civil war. The war began on August 22,1642 and ended in 1651. Charles I was condemned to death.

  The English Civil War is also called the Puritan Revolution. It has been seen as a conflict between the parliament and the King, and a conflict between economic interests of the Crown. The economic interests of the urban middle classed coincided with their religious ( Puritan) ideology while the Crown‘s traditional economic interests correspondingly allied with Anglican religious belief. The English Civil War not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shook the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe. It is generally regarded as the beginning of modern world history.

  由于查尔斯的“君权神授”统治权,他与议会的对质发展成了内战。战争开始于1642年8月22日,结束于1651年。最后查尔斯被处死。

  英国内战又称为清教徒革命。这是议会和国王间的冲突,也是城市中产阶级的经济利益与皇室传统经济利益之间的冲突。城市中产阶级经济利益刚好与他们的宗教(清教)思想吻合,相应地,皇室传统的经济利益则与圣公会教的宗教信仰相结合在一起。英国内战不仅推翻了英国的封建制度,而且动摇了欧洲封建经济的基础。英国内战通常被看作是现代世界史的开端。

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