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英语国家概况精讲系列(十八)

2007-01-11 16:50   【 】【我要纠错

  英语国家概况精讲系列(十八)

  Chapter 7

  第七章

  Government and Administration

  英国政府机构

  The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, the head of state is a king or a queen. The United Kingdom is governed, in the name of the Sovereign by His or Her Majesty‘s Government. The System of parliamentary government is not based on a written constitution, the British constitution is not set out in any single document. It is made up of statute law, common law and conventions. The Judiciary determines common law and interprets statutes.

  联合王国是君主立宪制国家,国家的首脑是国王或女王。联合王国以君的名义,由国王或女王陛下政府治理。英国的议会制度并不是基于成文宪法,英国宪法不由单一文件构成,而由成文法,习惯法和惯例组成。司法部门裁定习惯法或解释成文法。

  I.The Monarchy

  君主制

  1.Elizabeth II, her title in the United Kingdom is “Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Her Other Realms and Territories, Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.

  伊莉莎白二世,她的全称是“上帝神佑,大布列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国以及她的其他领土和领地的女王,英联邦元首,国教保护者伊莉莎白二世。”

  2.The Queen is the symbol of the whole nation. In law, She is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces and the “supreme governor” of the Church of England. She gives Royal Assent to Bills passed by parliament.

  女王是国家的象征。从法律上讲,她是行政首脑,立法机构的组成部分,司法首脑,全国武装部队总司令,英国国教“至高无上”的领袖。她任命首相和重要的政府官员。对议会通过的法案给予御准。

  3.The monarch actually has no real power. The monarch‘s power are limited by law and Parliament. Constitutional monarchy began after the Glorious Revolution in 1688.

  君主政体实际已无实权。它的权力受限于法律和议会。君主立宪制是从1688年的光荣革命后开始。

  III.Parliament

  议会

  1.The United Kingdom is a unitary, not a federal, state. Parliament consists of the Sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

  英国是中央集权国家,而不是联邦制国家。议会由君主,上议院和下议院组成。

  2.The main functions of Parliament are: (1) to pass laws; (2) to provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government; (3) to examine government Policy and administrations, including proposal for expenditure; and (4) to debate the major issues of the day.

  议会的主要作用是:(1)通过立法;(2)投票批准税为政府工作提供资金;(3)检查政府政策和行政管理,包括拨款提议;(4)当天的议题辩论。

  3.The House of Lords is made up of the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal. The main function of the House of Lords is to bring the wide experience of its members into the process of lawmaking. In other words, the non-elected House is to act as a chamber of revision, complementing but not rivaling the elect House.

  贵族院(上议院)由神职贵族和世俗贵族组成。它的主要作用是用议员的丰富经验帮助立法。换而言之,非选举的上议院是修正议院,补充而非反对由选举产生的下议院。

  4.The House of Common is elected by universal adult suffrage and consists of 651 Members of Parliament (MPs)。 It is in the House of Commons that the ultimate authority.

  下议院(平民院)由成人普选产生,由651名议员组成。下议院拥有最终立法权。

  5.Britain is divided 651 constituencies. Each of the constituencies returns one member to the House of Commons. A general Election must be held every five years and is often held at more frequent intervals.

  英国被划分为651个选区,每个选区选一名下议院议员。大选必须五年举行一次,但经常不到五年就进行一次选举。

  6.Britain has a number of parties, but there are only two major parties. These two parties are the Conservative Party and the Labour Party. Since 1945, either the Conservative Party or the Labour Party has held power. The party which wins sufficient seats at a General Election to command a majority of Government. The leader of the majority party is appointed Prime Minister. The party which wins the second largest number of seats becomes the Official Opposition, with its own leader and “shadow cabinet ”。 The rule of Opposition is to help the formulation of policy. Criticizes the Government and debate with the Government.

  英国有很多政党,但有两个主要的政党—保守党和工党。从1945年以来,两党一直轮流执政,在大选中获多数议席因而在下议院拥有多数支持者的政党组建政府,多数党领袖由君主任命为首相。获得第二多数议席的政党则正式成为“反对党”,有自己的领袖和影子内阁。反对党的目的是帮助制定政策,它可以经常给政府提出批评性的建议和修正议案。

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