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英语国家概况精讲系列(十一)

2007-01-11 16:34   【 】【我要纠错
 英语国家概况精讲系列(十一)

  II. The Industrial Revolution (1780-1830)

  工业革命(1780-1830)

  1.The industrial Revolution refers to the mechanisation of industry and the consequent changes in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

  工业革命指的是17世纪末、18世纪初英国工业的机械化,以及因此而导致的社会结构和经济结构的变化。

  2.Britain was the first country to industrialize because of the following factors:

  英国成为第一个工业化的国家,原因如下:

  (1) Favourable geopraphical location. Britain was well placed geographically to participate in European and world trade;

  优越的地理位置:英国地理位置优越,适合参与欧洲与世界贸易;

  (2) Political stability. Britain had a peaceful society, which, after the 17th century, was increasingly interested in overseas trade and colonies. International trade brought wealth to merchants and city bankers. They and those who had done well out of new farming methods provided capital in large quantities for industralization.

  政治局面稳定。17世纪后的英国社会宁静,对海外贸易和殖民地兴趣日增。国际贸易给商人和城市银行家带来财富,他们加上由于新农作法而发家的人们为工业化提供了大笔资金。

  (3) Good foundation in economy. The limited monarchy which resulted from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 ensured that the powerful economic interests in the community could exert their influence over Government policy.

  1688年光荣革命限制了君主的权力,这使得强大的经济利益集团能对议会政策施加影响。

  (4) It was a country in which the main towns were never too far from seaports, or from rivers, which could distribute their products.

  英国的主要城镇皆靠近海港或河流,货物运送便利。

  (5) Britain had many rivers, which were useful for transport but also for water and steam power. Britain also had useful mineral resources.

  英国许多河流不仅用于交通,还提供水力及蒸汽动力。英国还有可用的矿产资源。

  (6) British engineers had sound training as craftsmen.

  英国工程师为训练有素的手工艺人。

  (7) The inventors were respected. They solved practical problems.

  发明家受人尊重,他们解决了实际难题。

  (8) Probably laissez faire and “Protestant work ethic” helped.

  很可能利益于“放手干”及“新教工作道德”。

  (9) England, Scotland, and Wales formed a customs union after 1707 and this included Ireland after 1807. So the national market was not hindered by internal customs barriers.

  1707年后,英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士形成关税联盟,1807年后爱尔兰加入。因此,全国市场不再受阴于内部的关税障碍。

  (10) The enclosures and other improvements in agriculture made their contributions by providing food for the rising population, labour for the factories, and some of the raw materials needed by industry.

  圈地运动和其它农业改良为增加的人口提供了粮食,为工厂提供了劳动力,为工业提供了所需的一些原材料。

  3.Typical examples of the inventions during the Industrial Revolution

  工业革命中一些重大创新

  (1) John Kay‘s flying shuttle in 1733;

  1733年,约翰凯的飞梭;

  (2) James Hargreaves‘ Spinning Jenny in 1766;

  1766年詹姆士哈格里夫斯詹妮纺纱机;

  (3) Richard Arkwright‘s waterframe in 1769;

  1769年理查德阿克赖特的水力纺织机;

  (4) Samuel Crompton‘s mule in 1779

  1779年塞缪尔克朗普顿的走绽纺纱机;

  (5) Edmund Cartwright‘s power loom in 1784;

  1784年爱德蒙卡特莱特发明的力织机;

  (6) James Watt‘s steam engine in 1765.

  1765年詹姆斯瓦特的高效蒸汽机。

  4.Consequences of the industrial Revolution

  工业革命的结果

  (1) Britain was by 1830 the “workshop of the world”;

  英国成为了“世界工场”;

  (2) Towns grew rapidly and became the source of the nation‘s wealth.

  城镇迅速兴起,成为国家财富的源泉。

  (3) Mechanization destroyed the livelihood of those who could not invest in it . The working men worked and lived in a appalling conditions.

  机械化摧毁了不能投入其中的人们的生活。工人们在可怕的条件下劳动与生活。

  (4) The industrial revolution created the industrial working class, the proletariat, and it later led to trade unionism.

  工业革命产生了工人阶级,即无产阶级。后来形成了工会制度。

本文转载链接:英语国家概况精讲系列(十一)

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