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自考《英语(二)》串讲资料(二)

2006-12-23 10:23   【 】【我要纠错

  2. 非谓语动词

  动词主要时态和语态一览表

  非谓语动词 形式 意义

  现在分词

  一 般 式 doing 主动, 正在进行

  被 动 式 being done 被动, 正在进行

  完成主动式 having done 主动, 已经完成

  完成被动式 having been done 被动, 已经完成

  过去分词 done 被动, 已经完成

  动词不定式

  一 般 式 to do 主动,将要进行

  被 动 式 to be done 被动, 将要进行

  完成主动式 to have done 主动, 已经完成

  进行主动式 to be doing 主动, 正在进行

  非谓语动词作状语

  ?动词不定式:1)目的状语;2)结果状语

  e.g. I came here to meet you. (目的)

  He hurried to the rail station only to miss the train. (结果)

  ?分词:1) 伴随状语;2)原因状语;3)条件状语 4)让步状语;5)时间状语

  e.g. Walking along the street, he met his old friend. (时间)

  Being very tired, my father didn‘t go out with us. (原因)

  Made by hand, the silk shirt is very expensive. (原因)

  Seen from the space, the earth looks like a blue ball. (条件)

  非谓语动词,状语从句和独立结构

  ? Having done their homework, the children began to play. (分词作状语)

  ? After having done their homework, the children began to play. (连词+分词)

  ? After they had done their homework, the children began to play. (状语从句)

  ? With homework done, the children began to play. (独立结构)

  非谓语动词作定语

  ? If there is no choice, there is no decision ___ (make)。 (to be made)

  ? Do you know the man ____ ( stand) in front of the house? (standing)

  ? The question ____ (discuss) at the moment is very important. (being discussed)

  ? The pidge ____ (build) in the 1950s is still in good condition. (built)

  动名词和动词不定式

  ? 作主语和表语

  动名词作主语/表语表示一般、抽象的情况;动词不定时作主语表示具体某次的情况。

  e.g Rising early is good for health.

  To rise early tomorrow is difficult for me.

  It is difficult for me to rise early tomorrow.

  My biggest wish is to go apoad.

  Seeing is believing.

  ? 作宾语

  接动名词作宾语的动词:

  admit, acknowledge, avoid, deny, consider, enjoy, escape,

  excuse, forgive, finish, suggest, mind, include, involve, delay,

  put off, postpone, feel like, look forward to, be used to, be

  accustomed to, etc.

  接动词不定式作宾语的动词:

  want, tend, intend, pretend, hope, plan, expect, be supposed to,

  seem, be likely to, used to, be willing to, desire, force, prefer, start, begin

  接动名词和动词不定式有不同含义的动词:

  ? forget, remember, regret

  ? stop, continue

  ? need/ want

  ? allow doing/ allow sb to do

  1) How can I forget meeting you for the first time?

  Sorry, I forgot to lock the door.

  2) I can‘t stop laughing. Can you stop to give me a hand?

  3)The grass needs cutting. The grass needs to be cut.

  4)We don‘t allow smoking here. You are not allowed to smoke here.

  历年考题中的非谓语动词

  1. A man cannot be really happy if what he enjoys ___ (do) is ignored by society as of no value or importance. (doing)

  2. Anyone ___(want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics. (wanting)

  3. It is a well-known fact that a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes ___ (control) his direction. (to control)

  4. As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals ___ (use) in experiments may decrease. (used)

  5. A life ___ (live) without fantasy and daydreaming is a really poor life indeed. (lived)

  6. This poem, if ___ (translate) word for word into Chinese, will make no sense. (translated)

  7. They may have their passports _____ (remove), making leaving or “escaping” actually impossible. (removed)

  8. Her body, with hands and feet ____ (bind), was discovered by a traveler early in the morning. (bound)

  3. 虚拟语气

  第一大类:非真实条件下的虚拟语气

  时间 从句 主句

  与现在事实相反 did/ were should/could/would + do

  与过去事实相反 had done should/could/would + have done

  与将来事实相反 were to do should/could/would + do should do

  第二大类:从句中用过去时或过去完成时的虚拟语气

  ? would rather + 从句

  ? wish + 从句

  ? if only + 从句

  ? as if/ as though + 从句

  ? It‘s time + 从句

  第三大类:从句中用should加动词原形的虚拟语气,其中should可省略。

  ? suggest, propose, advise, move(动议), ask, order, require, request, desire, insist, prefer 等动词后接的宾语从句;

  ? suggestion, proposal, advice, motion, order, requirement, request, desire, preference等名词后的同位语从句;

  3. important, necessary, essential, imperative, desirable, advisable, preferable 等形容词用在it is … that…句型中;

  4. lest, in case, for fear that 等引导的从句中。

  历年考题中的虚拟语气

  ? If it hadn‘t been for your help, we ___ (be) in real trouble. (would have been)

  ? He would have given you more help, if he ___ (not be) so busy. (had not been)

  ? It is high time that we ___ (take) firm measures to protect our environment. (took)

  ? It was imperative that students ___ (finish) their papers before July 1st. (should finish/ finish)

  4. 定语从句和名词性从句

  定语从句:限制性和非限制性定语从句

  引导定语从句

  1)关系代词(在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语):which, that, who, whom, whose

  2)关系副词(在定语从句中作状语):when, where, why, how

  名词性从句

  名词性从句:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句

  引导名词性从句:

  1)主从连词(不在从句中作任何成分):that, whether, if

  2)连接代词(在从句中作主语、宾语、表语):what, which, who, whom, whose, whatever, whoever…

  3)连接副词(在从句中作状语):when, where, why, how

  ? 定语从句和同位语从句的区别

  ? The story (that) he told me may not be true.

  ? The story that he has made a fortune may not be true.

  2. 什么时候用介词+which 的形式?

  ? The place which I visited last week is very beautiful.

  ? The place in which I used to live is very beautiful.

  3. which 和 as 引导非限制性定语从句

  ? He is easy to get angry, which is well known.

  ? He is easy to get angry, as everybody knows.

  历年考题中的定语从句和名词性从句

  1. Studies have shown ___ teenagers often suffer from depression.

  [A] that [B] which [C] in which [D] in that  A

  2. It is a well-known fact ___ a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes to control his direction.

  [A] that [B] if [C] when [D] whether  A

  3. Very few people understood this contract, ___ was very obscure.

  [A] the language [B] the language of which  B

  [C] all it said [D] which it had said

  备考要诀

  ? 重视课文,英语一考上册,英语二以下册A课文为主,但是上册课文的语法和词汇是学习下册的基础。

  ? 吃透重点语法:非谓语动词、动词时态和语态、虚拟语气、比较级、定语从句,等。

  ? 背单词要讲究技巧,以大纲词汇为准,不要孤立地背单词,以词组为主,重视搭配;

  ? 加强阅读,选择难度适当的阅读材料,重在训练阅读技巧,提高速度和效率。

  推荐材料:

  1)大学英语自学教程》(上下册),高远主编,高教出版社。

  2)《大学英语自学教程——自学与自测指导》(上下册),高远主编,北航出版社。

  3)自考大纲

  4)全国高等自学考试英语(一)英语(二)模拟试卷与应试指导》高远主编,高等教育出版社。

  结束语

  Before God we are equally wise—equally foolish. (Albert Einstein)

  I. 每道题的考点

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