I： What are blood tests for？ （Paras 1）
II： Blood is a vital part of your body？（ Paras 2—4）
III： Functions of blood tests.（Paras 5—12）
IV： Blood tests are necessary to keep yourself health.（Paras 13）
1.Why does the author say that your blood is a vital part of your body？
1） Blood picks up oxygen in your lungs and carries it to your cells， which use the oxygen to produce energy.
2）Blood carries wastes away from your cells.
3） Blood carries white blood cells and disease-fighting chemicals called antibodies to places where foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses are causing infections.
4）Blood carries food from your stomach and small intestine to all parts of your body.
2. What is the use of white cells and antibodies？
The use of white cells and antibodies is to gobble up the invaders and knock them out.
3. What is the first step to find out the blood type？
The first step to find out your blood type is that the doctor sends your blood to laboratory. There your red cells are separated from the other parts of your blood.
4. How can the technician figure out your blood type？
The technician mixes your red blood cells with two kinds of blood serum. One contains anti-A antibodies， the other contains anti-B antibodies. By finding which mixture can make the red cells clump together， he can figure out the blood type.
5. What is CBC used for？
CBC is used to find out whether the number of your white cells is higher than it ought to be.
1.The importance of space stations.
3. Whether there are other inhabited planets.
1. Why is it important to have scientific stations in space？
Orbital stations are used to provide ideal conditions for observing stars objects in space.
2. Why does the author say that no new galaxy are thought to exist？
Because nearly all the galaxies were born at the same time， when the universe was constituted 15 billion （light） years ago.
3. According to the author what kind of condition is needed to observe the birth of stars？
To observe the birth of a galaxy that happened so long ago， 1）you have to see a very long way. 2）you need to have orbital stations to provide ideal conditions to observe.
4. Explain the exploration we have so far.
1）In 1989 the satellite Voyager II will reach Neptune after a journey of three and a half years.
2）Five probes were sent to rendezvous with Halley‘s comet.
3）Exploration of the solar system is more or less under way.
5. Do you think there are inhabited planets？ Why or why not？
Yes， I think there are， because no matter how far back into the universe we look， we find the same elements： atoms， molecules， stars， galaxies. We can show that the laws of physics have remained unchanged through 15 billion light years.
1.What kind of change is evolutionary change？
If the new creature is able to reproduce itself so that its young also have the new color. This change in color is evolutionary change.
2. Why did the Peppered Moth begin to change color in the industrial areas？
In industrial areas， pollution covered barks with soot and grime. The darker Peppered Moths were less visible and more likely to survive. So Peppered Moths began to change color.
3. What method is employed in the development of Paragraph 5？
Definition giving method.
4. What is natural selection？
A mutation happens to suit a new environment， and the ‘odd’ creature survives because it is better fitted. Then it reproduces and a new type of creature evolves. Meanwhile the others have become unsuited to the changed environment. They must either change their behaviour or become extinct.
5. Smoke control progammes have been introduced in industrial regions in Britain since 1952. What prediction can you make about the Peppered Moth？
The Peppered Moths will become lighter in color.
1.The ways of conveying and processing information before the invention of computers.
2. The functions of computers.
3. Two groups of computers.
4. A comparison of computers and human minds.
1. How did primitive men convey information？
They carved word-pictures on the walls of ancient caves and hieroglyphics on stone tablets.
2. How did men try to extend the range of his senses and the power of his mind？
They have invented many instruments to help them see better and understand more， such as telescope， microscope， radio， telephone and telegraph.
3. Explain the difference between digital computers and analog computers？
Digital computers work by using specific information which is usually in the form of numbers. Analog computers， on the other hand， usually process continuous information.
4. Why was Lord Kelvin‘s machine regarded as one of the first analog computers？
Because his machine gave continual indications of how tides were to rise and fall， that is， it process continuous information.
5. Compare and contrast computers with the minds of men.
1） they can work through a series of problems and make thousands of logical decisions without becoming tired.
2） they can reach solutions to problems in a fraction of time it takes men to do the job.
3） they can replace men in dull， routine tasks.
1）they are not creative.
2）they can not exercise value judgements.
3）they have no originality. 4） their achievements are not very great when compared to what the minds of men can do.
2. The first experiment.（5—7）。 The second experiment（8—10）。
3. Conclusion. There are other questions still to be answered.（12—13）
1. Why do you say the mystery is very old？
Because pigeons have been used as messengers for hundreds of years but their ability to find home is still unknown.
2. Why can not we mix up the pigeons‘ sense of direction by turning round and round？
Because they use the sun or the earth‘s magnetic field to tell direction.
3. How can we mix up the pigeons‘ direction？
On sunny days we can shift their biological clocks. On cloudy days we can attached a strong little bar magnetic on their backs.
4. How did the scientists prove that pigeons have a built-in clock？
In a number of experiments， they attached strong little bar magnetic to one group of pigeons and little brass bars to the other group. Both were taken away from home and let go. On sunny days， none of the magnet-pigeons were fooled. However， on cloudy days， the brass pigeons chose the right direction while the magnet-pigeons acted completely lost.
5. Have the scientists answered the old mystery？ Explain it.
No， they haven‘t fully answered the question. Though they have discovered how pigeons tell direction， （that is， they use the sun or use the earth’s magnet） they haven‘t found out how pigeons know where home is.
1.What space looks like.（1——3）
2. Preparations for the first space walking.（4——6）
3. The first space walking. 1）Before walking out of the spaceship（7—8）。 2）After walking out of the spaceship.（9——11）
1. What does the outer space look like？
The whole world seemed to be black， black nothingness. The sky was black with bright， shinning stars that never twinkled. The sun， a white， burning disc， seemed to hang in the black velvet of the surrounding heavens.
2. What would happen if the earth had no gravity？
If the earth had no gravity， our feet no longer stay on the ground， we float around in the air， and the slightest touch may send us drifting off in the opposite direction.
3. What did the astronauts know after the launching of Sputnik？
It was indeed possible to send objects far enough out of range of earth‘s gravity so that they would not fall back to earth. Rather， such objects could be forced to revolve about the earth， just as the moon does.
4. Why would it be much better to launch spaceships from the moon？
If spaceships were launched from space or from the moon. The absence of weight would permit the ships to be launched with great speed at reduced pressures. A relatively small explosion would be enough to send a ship off at a very fast rate.
5. How did Leonov feel and what did he find during his walk in space？
Leonov found the earth appeared as a huge， round disc， filling a large part of the sky and the relif of hills and mountains was more easily observed from that distance than from a plane flying at a few thousand feet. He was enjoying the cosmos so much that he felt disappointed to have to stop his wanderings so soon.
1. Why do many people ask the question “how many of us are healthy， and what is a normal diet”？
Because there is an element of doubt in their minds about the question.
2. Find a sentence or an example from Paragraph 1 to show that most tinned， processed and dried foods are not true “junk” foods.
Most tinned， processed and dried foods contain useful amounts of fat， protein， carbohydrate， vitamins and minerals.
3. Who needs extra vitamins？
The people who do live on “junk” foods might need extra vitamins.
4. Is the effect of vitamin E known to us all？ Why？
No， because this is an unexplored area in vitamin research and the only known advantages of vitamin E are confined to specialized medical cases.
5. Why do placebo pills sometimes work for some patients？
Because many of us react favourably to any kind of interest taken in out problems and derive as much benefit from that as we would from a medical drug.
1.Consumers are important to American economy.（1——6）
2. The law of supply and demand.（7——14）
3. American consumers borrow money to spend. （15—21）。
4. The differences between American economic system and socialist countries‘ economic system.（22——29）
1. Is there a contradiction between people‘s needs and their incomes？ If there is， explain the contradiction.
Yes， there is. Their needs are almost endless， but their incomes aren‘t.
2. If the price falls below what a goods cost， what will the seller do？
The seller will be discouraged production， perhaps be driven the high-cost producers out of business or force them to make something else.
3. Give one example to show that price is the guide-post in a free-market economy.
Farmers periodically plant less wheat or raise fewer cattle if the prices for those commodities give too little return for the cost involved.
4. How can you make a wise use of debt？
If I can meet the schedule of payments for loans or credit cards， I will use debt to buy the things I want most now， rather than wait to accumulate the full purchase price.
5. Why can doctors in American earn a lot of money？
Because society places a monetary value on various professions and skills based on the law of supply and demand. Doctors must study long years to develop special skills and therefore， they are in short supply.
1.Women‘s health is seriously affected by smoking. general（1——3），specific（4—6）
2. Things can be done to halt and reverse smoking among women.（7——15）
1. What is the author‘s prediction of tobacco industry in the year 2025？
The global death toll from tobacco by the year 2025 may increase to eight million deaths per year.
2. Why has the scale of smoking received surprisingly little attention？
Because smoking is still seen by many as mainly male problem， perhaps because men were the first to take up the habit and therefore the first to suffer the ill-effects.
3. What are the main problems smoking has caused？
Smoking causes 1） the same disease in women as in men and the gap between their death rates is narrowing. 2）There are dramatically increasing trends in respiratory cancer among women in developed countries， and the casual relationship of smoking to lung cancer is clear. 3）Women‘s health is also affected by the smoking of others， that is， by passive or involuntary smoking.
4. What action should be taken to halt or reverse the tobacco epidemic amongst women？
We should reduce the already high level of smoking among women in the industrialized world and ensure that the low level of smoking in developing countries does not increase.
5. What do you think of the smoking problem in our country？
It is very serious in our country. Many young people， including girls， take up smoking and a large number of people suffer or die of tobacco-related diseases.
1. What essential functions does water fulfil in modern industry？
1） Water is used as a raw material；
2）It is essential for cooling machinery；
3） It provides steam；
4）It is one of the most important sources of power.
2. Is water inexhaustible as a source of power？ Why or Why not？
Yes， because its power is ultimately derived from the force of gravity and from the sun and there is a water cycle.
3. In modern industry， how is water used as a source of power？
1） Water is used to produce electricity；
2）Water is a vital raw material in the textile industries；
3）Water is a valuable raw material because of the dissolved minerals it contains.
4. How can a river generate electricity？ What conditions does a river have to have？
A river generate electricity by constructing or enlarging waterfalls. The conditions for rivers to produce electricity is that 1）the river must have an adequate flow of water； 2）the amount of water in the river should not vary too much from season to season； 3） the river must be fairly near the industrial centers.
5. Can water be used in any industry？ In there any special case？ What is it？
No， the textile industries are a special case. Soft water is required in these industries.
1.The cost of computers has been falling.（1）
2. Microcomputers can wreak havoc.（2——3）
3. Hardware， software and computer languages.（4——6）
4. Two basic forms of software： custom software and package.（7——8）
1. What is the name for the department in a company that houses the computer and the staff who work with it？
It is Computering Deparment.
2. The greatest danger facing companies is that the whole system will lose the sales lodger debters and all if the date is corrupted.
3. BASIC and COBOL.
4. The three stages are design， programming， testing.
5. The differences between custom written software and package software are that 1）custom software can said to resemble a bespoke suit， while package is ‘off the peg’。 2）With a bespoke system， the whole development cost must be borne by one user； with a package， that cost is spread over many users， so that popular packages which sell in large numbers are relatively cheap.
1. Trelease‘s secret in education.（1—6）
2. Trelease‘s own experience.（7——11）
3. Trelease advocates that parents should read to their children.
1. Because they don‘t quite believe Trelease and they think they have no time to read to their children.
2. Reading to children builds vocabulary， stimulates imagination， stretches the attention span， nourishes emotional development， and introduces the textures and nuances of English language.
3. Because these parents were rarely read to as children.
4. Reading aloud to their children.
5. The author wants to tell readers that reading aloud to children plays a very important role in children‘s growth and that parents should do this as soon as possible.
1. European countries have different preferences for colors.（1—7）
2. Color preferences keep changing in fashion industry.（8——20）
A. Color is changing color before our eyes.（8—11）
B. Experts predict color.（12——14）
C. British people have a changed sense of color.（15——17）
D. The tendency of color development.（18——20）
1. The Italians like olive green， pumpkin， ecru because Italians are sophisticated and the long Italian summers， and olive skins of the people are perfectly suited to deep， rich colors or very bright colors.
2. In the Thirties. Later， pink is different. It no longer shocks， and seems tame.
3. He may suffer heavy losses because no one knows for sure what will sell and when.
4. They determine the key colors for fashion and interiors. They meet twice a year to predict the colors the Europeans will all want to wear， or be surrounded by， two years hence.
5. The tendency of color development is more sophisticated and more subtle.
1.Thousands of animal species have come and gone through the passing millennia.（1—3）
2. Some animals are disappearing.（4——9）
A. Over-hunting of predators.（4—7）
B. Destination of habitat.（8）
1. Through the passing millennia， thousands of animal species have come and gone gradually as a result of changes in climate， in habitat and in the genes of animals themselves. Recently the survival of many animals is under unprecedented pressure because of the tremendous expansion of modern civilization.
2. Man plays a major part in upsetting the natural balance because most causes arises in the greed and poor planning of man himself.
3. Predators have begun to be attacked and many of them are extinct and others are placed on the endangered species list.
4. Predators help maintain the health of their prey species by eliminating the diseased， young， old， and injured. Predators like the mountain lion and the wolf help to keep the deer herds healthy. Their kill also provides food for scavengers that feed on carrion.
5. Because every species that becomes extinct is gone forever. With each departure a small part of the diversity of nature that makes life so interesting is also gone. Man will have only endless cities and houses and roads that cross barren country devoid of birds and animals. The extinction of animals and birds will make our world and life dull.
1.A large percentage of people suffer from nervousness.（1）
2.How to overcome nervousness.（2——17）
B.Physical and mental control of nervousness.（12——17）
1.The author uses examples of attending a big dinner party and of making a presentation to show the preparation for a communicating situation.
2.The author suggests that we should begin preparing as far ahead of time as possible.
3.Because voice and appearance give the audience messages and have positive or negative effects.
4.The physical and mental control of nervousness is that adjusting your attitude so you have confidence， and control of yourself and your audience.
5.The author‘s attitude is that we have the power within us to become a forceful， persuasive， confident communicator. If we master the simple principles set out in the article， we will never be nervous again.
1.AIDS and USAID（1—3）
2.USAID is trying to ensure the full participation of living affected with HIV/AIDS.（4——5）
3.USAID is making efforts in HIV/AIDS prevention.（6—11）
4.USAID will meet the new challenges ahead. （12）
1.Because devastating impact on the health and well–being of families communities and nations worldwide， it kills many people and million of children lost their parents.
2.Because although people living with HIV/AIDS are among the most successful advocates and communicators for prevention， too often their voices are not heard or heeded. Greater involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS is essential to creating the supportive political， legal and social environments needed to control the epidemic.
3.The 1994 Paris AIDS Summit adopted a resolution pledging greater support for networks of people living with HIV/AIDS.
4.Because the virus affects people who are most active in the development process. Decades of progress in health and development are jeopardized by the social and economic impact of the epidemic. Without careful planning， development activities， in turn， can promote the spread of HIV/AIDS by encouraging migration and the separation of workers from their families.
5.The Agency will pursue opportunities for reducing HIV transmission and mitigating the impact of the epidemic on sustainable development through its programs in education， agriculture， and human resource and microenterprise development. The Agency will continue to adapt its strategies and programs in order to benefit from lessons from the field and new opportunities for building effective partnership.
1.The acceleration of technological change.（1—2）
2.Some of the new technologies in the future.（3——11）
A. Hydrogen-powered cars.（3—5）
C. Artificial human parts.（9——11）
1.Because the most incredible acceleration of all is in the pace of technological change. Change is coming so fast that some of the most important technologies of the 21 1st century may now be just a sketch on a drawing board or a glimmer in the mind of a genius.
2.Acceleration is the phenomenon that causes something to travel or develop at an ever increasingly rapid pace. The most incredible acceleration is in the pace of the technological change. The invention of wheels and steam engine， the development of computers and of the means of communication can show this.
3.Because auto pollution is one of the worst problems that technology have made， the affordable cars that don‘t pollute the atmosphere will be in great demand.
4.That means the futuristicsounding applications scientists have routinely trumpeted when talking about superconductivity are suddenly with reach.
5.Yes， because despite the ambitious daydreams of some computer scientists， nobody knows when if ever， it will be possible to manufacture a bionic mind.
1. Microbes are at work in our lives.（1—3）
2. Under what conditions microbes can live.（4——7）
3. Bacteria. （8—10）
1. I should avoid exposing things to the air， and keep them in a dry， cold and bright place.
2. The best way to make good use of microbes is to produce “wonder drugs” such as penicillin and streptomycin.
3. Negative points of microbes：
1）if you forget to change the water in a vase of flowers， it begins to smell；
2） Bread left in a package too long gets moldy；
3） Your clothes may mildew and your food may spoil.
1）The cheese and bread that we eat have become the foods they are because of the work of microbes；
2）We owe our sauerkraut， pickles， vinegar， sour cream and favorite kinds of sour milk to microbes.
4. Because lava of volcanoes is extremely hot， dry and bright and free of air.
5. Because aluminum foil is good for food to dry.
1.The value of information.（1—4）
2. The cost of information.（5——7）
3. How to make the value of information worth its cost. （8）
1. The value of information is it has the power to deduce uncertainty. Information essentially has two valuable applications： problem solving and strategic planning. It can reveal possible solutions to the problem.
2. Because information has the power to deduce uncertainty.
3. Information can be used to evaluate the marketplace by surveying changing tastes and needs， monitoring buyers‘ s intentions and attitudes and assessing the characteristics of the market.
4. Because 1）information is a boundless resource； 2） information is usually fragmented published piece meal in a variety of sources and seldom found in precisely the required form； 3）These difficulties are compounded by the time research can take.
5. Because the hardest question in business research is determining at what point the benefits of the information their cost. The potential profit or loss to the organization is an excellent gauge of the information‘s importance addresses a recurring problem or can be applied to other situations in the future.
1.General introduction to computer crime.（1—2）
2. The types of computer crimes.（3——5）
3. The protection of hardware and software……（6—8）
4. The author suggests using uniform software by comparing unique with uniform software.（9——11）
5. Concern from everyone in the company is needed of paramount importance.（12）
1. Because it is difficulty to detect a well-educated theft.
2. Because computer criminals are well-educated， highly intelligent and have fertile imaginations， besides lucrative scheme， often difficult to detect， involves accumulating fractions of pence from individual payroll accounts， with electronic transfer of the accumulated amount to the criminal‘s payroll.
3. Simple human error is by far the largest causes of system failure.
4. Systems controlling cash management， financial operations， and personnel and payroll functions offer the greatest potential for individual gain.
5. The top management of the company should be responsible for setting computer security standards.
2. Energy situation.（4——7）
3. Environmental protection.（8——10）
4. Unemployment. （12——14）
1. No， it isn‘t easy. Because there are many important factors to be considered in the future international trade.
2. Yes there is ， because Western Europe has received millions of workers from Mediterranean countries.
3. The developing countries， because the problem of pollution is ignored for the sake of development.
4. He must from the developed countries， because when he refers to the developing countries， he uses “their”， while when he refers to the developed countries， he uses “our”。 As can be seen in Paras 8.
5. Geothermal energy is difficult to obtain， because it is usually located at too deep a level for commercial exploitation and it has barely been exploited.
1.Aims of the World Bank.（1）
2. How the World Bank works.（2——5）
3. How IMF works.（6—9）
4. The functions of the World Bank.（10——16）
1. The World Bank was formed to provide sound long-term credit for reconstruction and development. The IMF is concerned with short-term credit and the cooperative management of foreign exchange rates.
2. The World Bank true importance is： 1） the fact it can float bonds and use the proceeds to make loans； 2） it can insure loans in return for small premium； 3） private parties can then put up the money， knowing the Bank‘s credit is squarely behind the loan.
3. Because it was impossible to defend the system.
4. IMF continued to make stable exchange rates work and defend the system.
5. After Robert McNamara became the head of the World Bank in the 1960‘s， the Bank has stepped up the scale of its activities sharply： the International Development Agency， International Finance Corporation have been set up.
1. The beauty of photos from the Hubble……（1—3）
2. The importance of the Hubble.（4——6）
3. The history of the Hubble. （7—12）
1. Because they look remarkable like great towering thunderheads billowing， high into the evening sky as they catch the last rays of the setting sun. They are also so sharp， so startlingly three dimensional that the mind wants to domesticate them， to bring them down to earth to imagine them rising on the horizon or just beyond the wings of an airliner.
2. It has offered close-up pictures of distant galaxies that are ten times as sharp as those produced by earthbound telescopes-pictures. The ability of the Hubble to see the smallest features in such unprecedented detail has told astronomers an enormous amount about how stars are born and why some are circled by planets and others are not.
3. Two astrophysicists were mentioned， they are John Bahcall and Lyman Spitzer.
4. Because a technician had assembled a device that guided the mirrorgrinding process with one bolt put on backward.
5. Because when the Soviet launched Sputnik in 1957， suddenly just about anything involving space took on urgency and from then on the U.S. started to compete with Russia in space.