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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(81)

2007-09-07 09:14   【 】【我要纠错

  8.Emotional reaction varies greatly from person to person.

  vary … from …。 to …

  全句大意:人与人的情绪反应差异很大。

  Physical distractors are always present and rarely understood

  Our environment is much more important to how we feel and react than we often think.⑼ Particularly is this true of the effect of physical distractors on mental tasks.⑽ One research report has shown that comprehension and retention of reading were decreased when students listened to lively music. However, rate of reading was not affected , so that many students were not aware that they were affected by the background distractor. Another study found that the ability to recall accurately was affected by distracting conditions. Most of the evidence indicates that noise affects adversely higher mental task output. Still, the effect of distractors is seldom fully appreciated by students.

  9.Our environment is much more important to how we feel and react than we often think.

  本句中much more … than … 结构表示“远比…要…得多”,

  …。how we feel and react 是介词to 的宾语从句

  全句大意:环境对于我们如何感觉和反应的重要性比我们所想的要大得多。

  10.Particularly is this true of the effect of physical distractors on mental tasks.

  此句是倒装句结构,正常语序为:This is particularly true of the effect of physical distractors on mental tasks.

  全句大意为:物理性干扰对需要动脑筋完成的作业的影响尤其如此。

  ROUTINE AND REASONING TASKS ARE AFFECTED DIFFERENTLY BY DISTARCTORS

  Many routine tasks can be performed with distraction in the background with little or no adverse effect on output. Most students have found this fact to be true from their own experience. They may have had high school homework which was drill or merely copying assignments. It was possible to do such work with the latest recordings or the television set playing in the background. In time such students began to feel certain that they could do all work - routine or problem- solving -in the same manner.⑾ The evidence indicates the contrary conclusion.

  11.In time such students began to feel certain that they could do all work——routine or problem-solving ——in the same manner.

  In time 最后,在不定的时间内,最终

  feel certain 相当于feel sure,意为“感到肯定”

  本句中that引导宾语从句,

  最后(终于)这些学生开始确信,他们能用同样的方式完成作业,无论是常规性的还是解决问题性的。

  EXCEPTIONS MAY MISLEAD YOU

  Typically when students are faced with the evidence on distractors the argument is given that their cousin, friend, or classmate can study in “Grand Central Station.”⑿ And he makes “all A‘s” too! There is evidence, of course. That motivation plays an important role in overcoming the effects of distractors and that there are considerable differences in individual spans of attention. ⒀Either of these factors could account for some individuals being able to do well using inefficient methods. ⒁The fact that some exceptional people do well under adverse conditions scarcely justifies your assuming that you are exceptional in the same manner. ⒂Your chances of success are higher if you avoid the distractors which are known to hinder the typical student.

  12.Typically when students are faced with the evidence on distractors the argument is given that their cousin, friend, or classmate can study in “Grand Central Station”。

  that 引导同位语从句,修饰the argument

  典型的情况是,当要求学生们拿出关于干扰物的证据时,他们提出自己的表兄弟、朋友或同学能在纽约的“中央火车站”学习。

  13.There is evidence, of course, that motivation plays an important role in overcoming the effects of distractors and that there are considerable differences in individual spans of attention.

  Play an important role in …。在… 起到一个重要作用。

  当然,有证据表明,学习动机在克服干扰的影响方面起作用,并且每个人的注意力广度相差很大

  14.Either of these factors could account for some individuals being able to do well using inefficient methods.

  account for : 解释…的原因,

  这两种因素中哪一种都能解释某些人用效率不高的方法都能学得很好。

  15.The fact that some exceptional people do well under adverse conditions scarcely justifies your assuming that you are exceptional in the same manner.

  第一个 that 引导同位语从句, 第二个that 是动名词assuming 的宾语从句

  justify 意为 “证明…”,它的宾语是动名词assuming,

  物主代词your 是动名词assuming的逻辑主语。

  译文:一些特殊的人在不利条件下能学得好,这一事实绝不能证明,你有理由认为自己在同样的条件下也是特殊的。

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