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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(40)

2007-09-06 09:15   【 】【我要纠错

  4.Many people believe it is an effective way to get criminal to pay back their debt to society.

  许多人相信这是一种让罪犯向社会还清债务的有效途径。

  it是形式宾语,不定式to get criminal to pay back their debt to society为实际宾语

  The prisoners stay shackled when they use toilets .They reacted sharply to the treatment they are given:

  5.They reacted sharply to the treatment they are given. 他们强烈反抗他们所受到的待遇。

  they are given 为定语从句,修饰 the treatment

  Prisoner one : “This is like a circus . A zoo . All chained here to a zoo .We‘re all animals now.”

  6.All chained here to a zoo.

  此句为省略句,谓语动词are 被省略 , 应为all are chained here to a zoo.意为:所有的人都被锁链拴住,这里成了动物园。

  Prisoner two: “It‘s degrading. It’s embarrassing.”

  Prisoner three: “In chains. It‘s slavery!”

  Six out of every ten prisoners in chains are black , which is why the chain gangs call up images of slavery in centuries gone by , when the black people were brought from Africa in leg irons and made to work in plantations owned by white men. Not surprisingly, although three-quarters of the white population of Alabama supports chain gangs, only a small number of black people do. Don Claxton, spokesman for the State Government of Alabama, insists that the system is not racist:

  7.Six out of every ten prisoners in chains are black, which is why the chain gangs call up images of slavery in centuries gone by, when black people were brought from Africa in leg irons and made to work in plantations owned by white men.

  which引导非限定性定语从句,修饰前句话。

  gone by过去分词短语,修饰 centuries.

  when引导另一个定语从句,修饰centuries.

  句中并列谓语是were brought ,(were) made to work是主语补语,因此不可以省略不动式符号to

  “This isn‘t something that’s done for racial reasons, for political reasons. This is something that‘s going to help save the people of Alabama tax money because they don’t have to pay as many officers to work on the highways. And it‘s going go help clean up our highways and it’s going to help clean up the State.”

  However, the re-introduction of these measures has caused a great deal of strong disagreement. Human rights organizations say that putting prisoners in chains is not only inhumane but also ineffective. Alvin Bronstein, member of the Civil Liberties Union, says that study after study has shown that you cannot prevent people from committing crimes by punishment or the threat of punishment: “What they will do is make prisoners more angry , more hostile, so that when they get out of prison, they will increase the level of their criminal behaviour.”

  8.“What they will do is make prisoners more angry, more hostile, so that when they get out of prison, they will increase the level of their criminal behavious.”

  what引导的主语从句中有do,则在表语中不定式省略to

  so that 引导结果状语从句

  Civil liberties groups say that chaining people together doesn‘t solve the causes of crime ,such as poverty or disaffection within society. What it does is punish prisoners for the ills of society. They say the practice takes the United States back so the Middle Age , and that it is a shame to American society. But that’s not an argument likely to win favour among many people in the Deep south of the United states. Alabama‘s experiment is to be widened to include more prisoners, and other States, such as Arkansas and Arizona, will very probably introduce their own chain gang schemes.

  9.What it does is punish prisoners for the ills of society.

  同上句 what引导的主语从句中有do,则在表语中不定式省略to,

  10. But that‘s not an argument likely to win favour among many people in the Deep South of the United States.

  划线部分为形容词短语作定语,修饰argument.

  win favour 意为“赢得赞同”

  be not likely to 不可能

  favor 喜欢

  III.语 法

  There be “存在”句型

  1.to be 作谓语动词单复数与后面的主语一致

  例如:There are a lot of people in the room.

  There is one person/ nobody in the room .

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