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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(49)

2007-09-06 09:36   【 】【我要纠错

  4.It isn‘t easy to be inspired in that spontaneous way for long period at a stretch.

  连续很长时间使自己的灵感都处于不自主状态绝非易事。

  at a stretch 一口气地,不休息地

  Beethoven belongs to the second type-the constructive type, one might call it. This type serves as an example of my theory of the creative process in music better than any other, because in this case the composer really does begin with a musical theme. In Beethoven‘s case there is no doubt about it, for we have the notebooks in which he put the themes down. We can see from his notebooks how he worked over his themes -how he would not let them be until they were as perfect as he could make them. Beethoven was not a spontaneously inspired composer in the Schubert sense at all. He was the type that begins with a theme; makes it a preliminary idea; and upon that composes a musical work, day after day, in painstaking fashion. Most composers since Beethoven’s day belong to this second type.

  5.belong to 属于,列入,是 … 的一员

  Beethoven belongs to the second type-the constructive type. 贝多芬属于第二类作曲家

  Most composers since Beethoven‘s day belong to this second type.

  自Beethoven时代以来,大多数作曲家属于这第二种类型。(创造型)

  That dictionary belongs to me .那本词典是我的。

  The third type of composer I can only call, for lack of a better name, the traditionalist type. Men like Palestrina and Bach belong in this category. They both are characteristic of the kind of composer who is born in a particular period of musical history, when a certain musical style is abut to reach its fullest development. It is a question at such a time of creating music in a well-known and accepted style and doing it in a way that is better than anyone has done it before you.

  6.belong in 属于 … (一类), 归入 …(范畴、环境、类别等)

  Men like Palestrina and Bach belong in this category.

  像 Palestrina 和 Bach 这样的人属于此类范畴(传统型)

  Big dogs should belong in the country , not the city. 大型犬(养)在农村而不是城市。

  The traditionalist type of composer begins with a pattern rather than with a theme. The creative act with Palestrina is not the thematic conception so much as the personal treatment of a well-established pattern. And even Bach, who composed forty-eight of the most various and inspired themes in his Well Tempered Clavichord, knew in advance the general formal mold that they were to fill. It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditionalist period nowadays.

  7.The traditionalist type of composer begins with a pattern rather than with a theme.

  传统主义类型的作曲家的创作开始于模式而不是主题

  8.It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditionalist period nowadays.

  不用说,我们现在已不是生活在传统主义的时期……

  One might add, for the sake of completeness, a fourth type of composer -the pioneer type: men like Gesualdo in the seventeenth century, Moussorgsky and Berlioz in the nineteenth, Debussy and Edgar Varese in the twentieth. It is difficult to summarize the composing methods of so diversified a group. One can safely say that their approach to composition is the opposite of the traditionalist type. They clearly oppose conventional solutions of musical problems. In many ways, their attitude is experimental - they seek to add new harmonies, new sonorities, new formal principles. The pioneer type was the characteristic one at the turn of the seventeenth century and also at the beginning of the twentieth century, but it is much less evident today.

  9.One might add, for the sake of completeness, a fourth type of composer -the pioneer type:

  为了全面起见,还可以加上第四种类型——先锋型

  for the sake of 为了 … 起见,由于 … 缘故

  10.One can safely say that their approach to composition is the opposite of the traditionalist type.

  可以有把握的说,他们创作的方法与传统主义者类型相反。

  approach to 通往 … 的方法, approach v. n. 处理,探讨,方法,态度

  语 法 语 序

  一、语 序

  主语用S表示,谓语用V表示;如果谓语动词为不及物动词,则用vi表示;

  如果谓语为系动词(link),则后面跟表语,用C表示;如果谓语动词为及物动词,

  则用vt表示,后面要跟宾语,用O表示。

  (一)主语和谓语的位置 P.126

  1.自然语序 主语+ 谓语 + 宾语或表语或状语

  2.倒装语序(部分倒装、全部倒装)

  There are some books on the table.

  Do you have a book?

  Have you ever seen the film?

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