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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(20)

2007-09-04 16:01   【 】【我要纠错

  重点句子:

  1.The stars which we see glittering in the sky on a dark and cloudless night are almost certainly the suns of other solar systems more or less like our own, but they are so far away in space that it is unlikely that we shall ever get to know very much about them.

  which 引导定语从句

  so… that…结果状语从句中it为形式主语

  2.The earth is, however, very different from the moon, which the American astronauts have found to be without life or vegetation, whereas our earth is very much alive in every respect.

  which引导非限定性定语从句,修饰the moon

  vegetation 植物

  whereas = while 然而

  alive意为“有活力的”,在句中作表语。类似的形容词还有afraid, alone, alike, asleep, awake, aware等

  in every respect 在每一个方面

  3.In most of the oceans and seas some of the water is found to be flowing in a particular direction - that is to say, from one part towards another part of the ocean or sea concerned.

  to be flowing不定式作主语补语

  concerned 是分词作定语,修饰the ocean or sea

  4.There are many thousands of currents in the waters of the oceans and seas ,but only certain of the stronger and better marked currents are specially named and of great importance.

  Thousands/hundreds of + 名词复数

  Eg.Hundreds of meters

  此处waters指的是“大片的水,水域”

  peoples 表示人种

  woods 表示森林,树木

  5.The circumstances under which different people live make a great difference between the way in which they live and the way in which we live, and it ought to be our business to try to understand those different circumstances so that we can better understand people of other lands.

  三个定语从句,由under which 和 两个in which 引导,

  第一个:under which different people live 修饰 circumstances

  第二个:in which they live 修饰 the way

  第三个:in which we live 修饰 the way

  ought to = should 应该

  business 责任,业务

  it是形式主语,真正主语是to try to understand those different circumstances

  目的状语从句,由so that引导

  other lands 其它国家

  6.Above all, we should avoid deciding what we think about people different from ourselves without first having learned a great deal about them and the kind of lives they have to live.

  注意动词 avoid 后接动名词作宾语

  decide 判定

  what 引导宾语从句作deciding的宾语

  they have to live 是省略连词的定语从句,修饰lives

  7.It is true to say that the more we learn about other people, the better we understand their ideas and, as a rule, the better we like those people themselves.

  注意 the more …, the better…, the better … 比较结构

  Unit 2 补充语法知识

  that 与 which引导定语从句的异同点 :

  that不可引导非限制性定语从句 which可引导非限制性定语从句

  that 不可用作介词宾语 which可用作介词宾语 介词+ which

  in that “在于”, 是复合连词,非介词宾语

  that 可以用于指代人或物 which不可以用于指代人

  当先行词是不定代词、序数词、形容词最高级所修饰的词时,只能用that而不能用which引导定语从句

  比如everything, anything, first, second等

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