The surface of our earth is covered by masses of land and larger areas of water.Let us consider the water areas first.The total water area is about three times as large as the land area.The very large separate areas of water are called “oceans” and the lesser areas are called “seas.”
In most of the oceans and seas some of the water is found to be flowing in a particular direction ―that is to say， from one part towards another part of the ocean or sea concerned.The water which is flowing in this manner is said to be moving as a “current.” There are many thousands of currents in the waters of the oceans and seas， but only certain of the stronger and better marked currents are specially named and of great importance.There currents are important because they affect the climate of the land areas close to where they flow and also because they carry large quantities of microscopic animal and vegetable life which forms a large part of the food for fishes.
The nature and characteristics of the surface of the land areas of the earth vary a great deal from area to area and from place to place.The surface of some areas consists largely of high mountains and deep valleys whilst， in other areas， most of the surface consists of plains.If one made a journey over the Continents one world find every kind of surface including mountain ranges， plains， plateaux， deserts， tropical forestlands and empty areas covered permanently by ice and snow.
When thinking and learning about the world we should not forget that our world is the home of a vary great many different people ― peoples with different coloured skins， living very different lives and having very different ideas about a great many important things such as religion， government， education and social behaviour.
The circumstances under which different people live make a great difference between the way in which they live and the way in which we live， and it ought to be our business to try to understand those different circumstances so that we can better understand people of other lands.Above all， we should avoid deciding what we think about people different from ourselves without first having learned a great deal about them and the kind of lives they have to live.It is true to say that the more we learn about other people ， the better we understand their ideas and， as a rule， the better we like those people themselves.
The earth revolves round / around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。
2.solar adj.太阳的，日光的，利用太阳光的 例：the solar system 太阳系
3.whereas ： conj.而，却，反之
He must be about sixty， whereas his wife looks about thirty.他一定有60岁了，而他的妻子看起来只有30岁。
You eat a massive plate of food for lunch， whereas I have just a sandwich.你中午吃了一大盘食物，而我只吃了个三明治。
4.concerned ： 有关的，关心的，担心的
I was quite a shock for all concerned.这对所有有关人士都是一个震惊。
Her job is something concerned with English.她的工作和英语有关。
I'd love to live somewhere with a tropical climate.
August was almost tropical this year.今年八月十分炎热
We can't decide until we know all the circumstances.
1.a great many ， a good many 很多 （ 后边加可数名词）
2.above all ： 最重要的，尤其；首先
Above all ， don't forget to write.最重要的是别忘了写信。
In choosing the curtain for a room， you should consider the material from the point of view of texture， its weight， its pattern - but its colour above all .在挑选房间窗帘面料时，你应该考虑质地、重量和图案等，但最重要的是颜色。
3.as a rule ： 在多数情况下，通常，一般而言 = usually
As a rule I'm home by six.我通常六点前在家。
As a rule， I only read detective novels.通常我只读侦探小说。
4.together with ： 和，连同
These new facts， together with the other evidence， prove the prisoner's innocence.这些新的事实连同其他证据证明这个犯人清白无辜。
John， together with his brother， has gone to the party.约翰连同他的兄弟一起去参加宴会了。
注意together with 作插入语时，句子的谓语动词的数取决于前面的主语。