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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(6)

2007-09-04 15:37   【 】【我要纠错

  Para.6

  Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best - that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization. Called suboptimization, this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function. For example, the marketing manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget. In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.

  16.An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach.

  一个省略that或which的定语从句,修饰a state of affairs “事物的状态,事态”

  to seek to do sth. 追求,争取,寻求,设法(去做某事)

  17.Because individuals frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision.

  本句中,because 引导了原因状语从句;在主句中,who makes the decision 是作depend on 的介词宾语从句。

  18.Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization.

  两个that引导的都是定语从句,修饰decisions

  less than 在此做状语,表示否定的含义, less than optimal “不太理想”

  例如:This job is less than perfect. 这份工作不十分理想(完美)。

  19.this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function.

  that引导定语从句,修饰trade-off “权衡”

  increases 和 decreases 是定语从句的并列谓语

  Para.7

  These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously. Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. Different managers define the same problem in differentterms. When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on.

  20.These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously.

  Because 引导的原因状语从句中,有一个that引导的定语从句,修饰many objectives

  21.Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary form person to person and from department to department.

  vary from … to … 表示各不相同的意思。

  例:The percentage varies from person to person. (税收的) 比例因人而异。

  22.When presented with a common case

  presented with 面对

  过去分词短语前面加上when作时间状语。

  为了表示明确的时间或条件,有时常在分词前面加上when, while, even if , even though , unless 等连词作时间、条件、让步等状语。 (详见语法要点)

  Para.8

  The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker. Such values are personal; they are hard to understand, even by the individual, because they are so dynamic and complex. In many business situations different people's values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.

  23.The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker.

  be based on 基于,取决于

  in part 部分地,在某种程度上

  对于多项目标的排序和重要性,部分地基于决策者的价值观。

  24.different people's values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.

  两个about都是介词短语作定语,修饰前边的名词

  不同人关于风险和收益可接受程度的价值观,导致了对于决策正确性的不同意见。

  Para.9

  People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon. But from a systems point of view, problems have multiple causes, and decisions have intended and unintended consequences. An organization is an ongoing entity, and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future. Thus the skilled manager looks toward the future consequences of current decisions.

  25.People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon

  assume vt. 认为,假定,设想 that 引导宾语从句

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