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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(147)

2007-09-11 14:58   【 】【我要纠错

  2. as for 至于,关于 bring about: 带来,产生

  译:至于大部分其他社会问题,美国将不再设法使用学校来促进社会改革。

  It‘s becoming increasingly clear to policy makers that schools cannot solve all the problems of the larger community.⑶

  3. it 是形式主语,that 引导主语从句

  译:学校不能解决更大社区里的所有问题,这一点政策制定者愈来愈清楚了。

  Instead, the battle cry for the ‘90s will be the demand for performance and accountability. ⑷

  4. battle cry 呐喊 performance 表现,表演

  本句的意思是:相反,90年代的强烈要求是人的表现和责任心。

  For 30 years, employers have been hiring graduates for their degrees rather than their abilities;

  5.hire(动词)

  rather than 的意思是“而不是”。注意本句时态用了现在完成进行时。

  译:30年来,雇主们一直看重学位而不是能力来雇用毕业生

  employment pay and often even promotion have depended on one‘s diploma. Now many major employers are beginning to demand more than the completion of school. Some of the major banks, for example, are studying the possibility of entrance examinations that would test the knowledge and abilities of graduates applying for jobs.

  Students and parents, too, will demand greater accountability from schools, on all levels. It will be increasingly common to go to law against school districts and colleges for awarding degrees without imparting the skills that are supposed to go along with them.⑹

  6. to go to law against … for 意为:“为…而控告”

  that 引导定语从句修饰skills,意为:“应该和这些学位一起获得的技能”

  译:学校如果只授予学位而不能培养出与学位相符的技能,人们将会向法院起诉学校,这种做法将会愈来愈普遍。

  And many young people are already switching to practical “hard” subjects. Caring little about the so-called “youth culture” and the media, they have been shifting from psychology into medicine, from sociology into accounting and from black studies into computer programming.⑺

  7. 译:他们对所谓的“青年文化”和媒体不太感兴趣,正在逐步地由心理学转到医学,由社会学转到会计学,由黑人问题研究转到计算机程序设计,等等。

  Demand for education is actually going up, not down. What is going down, and fairly fast, is demand for traditional education in traditional schools.

  Indeed, the fastest growing industry in America today may be the continuing professional education of highly schooled adults. Much of it takes place outside the education establishment- through companies, hospitals and government departments that run courses for managerial and professional employees ; or through management associations and trade associations.

  In the meantime, any number of private enterprises are organizing courses, producing training films and tapes and otherwise taking advantage of growth opportunities that universities shy away from.⑻

  8. in the meantime “同时”

  otherwise 在此是副词,意为:“以其他方式” take advantage of “利用”

  that 引导定语从句修饰opportunities

  译:与此同时,一些私人企业也组织教学课程,制作培训用的电影和磁带以及以其他方式利用一些大学避而不用的发展机会。

  The demand for continuing education does not take the from that most observers, including this writer, originally expected- namely, “Great Books” classes for adults wanting to learn abort the humanities, the arts, the “life of the mind.” We face instead a growing demand for advanced professional education: in engineering and medicine, in accounting and journalism, in law and in administration and management.

  Yet the adults who come back for such studies also demand what teachers of professional subjects are so rarely able to supply: a humanistic perspective that can integrate advanced professional and technical knowledge into a broader universe of experience and learning.

  Since these new students also need unconventional hours - evenings, weekends or high-intensity courses that stuff a term‘s work into two weeks- their demands for learning bring a vague but real threat to the school establishment.⑼

  9.stuff(名词-东西、材料;动词-填满)

  that stuff a term‘s work into two weeks 定语从句修饰high-intensity courses 意为:“把一学期课程压缩到两周内学完的高强化班“

  译:由于这些新型学生还要求非常规的学习时间 - 晚上、周末或把一学期课程压缩到两周内学完的高强化班 ,所以他们的学习要求给学校机构带来了难以言状,但又确实存在的威胁。

  The greatest challenge to education is likely to come from our new opportunities for diversity.We now have the chance to apply the basic finding for diversity. We now have the chance to apply the basic findings of psychological, developmental and educational research over the last 100years; namely, that no one educational method fits all children.

  Almost all children are capable of attaining the same standards within a reasonable period of time. All but a few babies, for instance, learn to walk by the age of two and to talk by the age of three,but no two get there quite the same way.

  So too at higher levels. Some children learn best by rote, in structured environments with high certainty and strict discipline.⑽

  10.to learn best by rote 意为:死记硬背地学习,由熟记而学某事

  structured 是形容词,意为:有组织的,有条理的

  译:有些孩子在非常稳定、纪律严格、结构严谨的环境里靠死记硬背能达到最佳学习效果。

  Others gain success in the less structured “permissive” atmosphere of a “progressive” school. Some adults learn out of books, some learn by doing, some learn best by listening.

  Some students need prescribed daily doses of information;⑾

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