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2007/09/11    来源:   字体:   打印

  7.He is therefore more likely to take too little leisure than too much; 这是对同一个人不同方面的比较。译为:“因此他的休闲时间可能太少而不是太多。”

  8.die of 死于……

  die of 死于自然原因

  die from 死于非自然原因

  so that在句中引导结果状语从句。“the fewer… the more … the better ”是一个比较结构,表示“越…就越…”。The better 后面省略了it is .


  What percentage of the population in a modern technological society are, like myself, in the fortunate position of being workers?(9)At a guess 1 would say sixteen per cent, and I do not think that figure is likely to get bigger in the future.

  9.percentage 作单数还是复数取决于它所代表的名词是可数的还是不可数的。一般说来population 作“人口”解时,是总称,为集合名词,一般作不可数名词用,但这里由于percentage 与后面的workers 有直接呼应关系,从意义一致的角度看,谓语动词用了are而没有从语法一致的角度用is.


  Technology and the division of labor have done two things; by eliminating in many fields the need for special strength or skill, they have made a very large number of paid occupations which formerly were enjoyable work into boring labor, and by increasing productivity they have reduced the number of necessary laboring hours.(10)It is already possible to imagine a society in which the majority of the population, that is to say, its laborers, will have almost as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy. (11)When one recalls how aristocracies in the past actually behaved, the prospect is not cheerful. Indeed, the problem of dealing with boredom may be even more difficult for such a future mass society than it was for aristocracies.(12)The latter, for example, ritualized their time; there was a season to shoot grouse, a season to spend in town, etc. The masses are more likely to replace an unchanging ritual by fashion which it will be in the economic interest of certain people to change as often as possible(13)Again, the masses cannot go in for hunting, for very soon there would be no animals left to hunt. For other aristocratic amusements like gambling, dueling, and warfare, it may be only too easy to find equivalents in dangerous driving, drug-taking, and senseless acts of violence.(14)Workers seldom commit acts of violence, because they can put their aggression into their work, be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist.(15)The role of aggression in mental work is aptly expressed by the phrase “getting one's teeth into a problem.”

  10.句中冒号后面的句子用来解释前面的句子,它的主要结构为:by…,they have made …occupations…into …labor, and by…they have reduced the number…。在第一个by 介词短语中, in many fields 是动名词eliminating 的状语,原应在skill之后,但因宾语部分太长,所以被提到前面,插在了动词eliminating 和它的宾语the need之间。“which formerly were enjoyable work为定语从句,修饰occupations.


  11.句中in which 直至句尾为定语从句,修饰society.定语从句中又包含有一个状语从句as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy , 其中第二个as 引导的是带被动语态的比较状语从句。注意leisure 为状语从句的主语,所以不能再另加主语。


  12.mass society 意为“大众社会”


  13.which 引导的定语从句修饰fashion , 从句中it 是形式主语,真正主语是后面的不定式to change. “ change”的宾语是which ,即fashion.


  14.only too easy to do sth. “非常容易做某事”

  too… to … 一般作?quot;太…以致不能…“讲, 但是加上only, but, all 等词后则为”非常…做某事“。例如:我非常愿意和你一起工作。 I'm only too pleased to work with you.

  He was only too glad to help you.

  He was too busy to help you.


  15.be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist 为虚拟式让步状语从句,等价于:whether it is physical like the work of a smith, or it is mental like the work of a scientist or an artist.


  Text B The Workman's Compensation

  New Words

  1.workman n. 工人,劳动者

  2.tighten vt./vi. (使)变紧;拧紧


  3.infinitely ad. 无限地,无穷地

  4.varied a. 1.各种各样的; 2.杂色的,斑斓的

  vary 改变,变化

  5.subtle a. 1.精巧的,精妙的; 2.微妙的,难以捉摸的

  6.cadre n. 干部;基干

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