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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(148)

2007-09-11 15:00   【 】【我要纠错

  11. prescribed daily doses of information 是比喻的说法,

  译:有些学生需要老师像医生开药一样每天给他们规定一定量的信息。

  others need challenge and a high degree of responsibility for the design of their own work. But for too long, teachers have insisted that there is one best way to teach and learn, even though they have disagreed about what that way is.⑿

  12.that 引导宾语从句,even though 引导让步状语从句,

  disagree about 意见不合,有分歧

  译:但长期以来,尽管老师们对什么是最好的教学方法存在分歧,却坚持认为只有一种最好的教学方法。

  A century ago, the greatest majority of Americans lived in communities so small that only one one -room schoolhouse was within walking distance of small children. Then there had to be “one right method” for everybody to learn.

  Today the great majority of pupils in the United State(and all developed countries) live in big cities with such density that there can easily be three or four elementary schools -as well as secondary schools within each child‘s walking or bicycling distance. This enables students and their parents to choose between alternative routes to learning offered by competing schools.

  Indeed, competition and choice are already beginning to infiltrate the school system. Private schools and colleges have shown an unusual ability to survive and develop during a period of rising costs and dropping enrollments elsewhere. All this present, of course, a true threat to the public school establishment.

  But economics, student needs and our new understanding of how people learn are bound to break the traditional education monopoly just as trucks and airplanes broke the monopoly of railroads, and computers and “chips” are breaking the telephone monopoly.⒀

  13.be bound(bind 的过去分词)to (必然)

  bind(动词——绑)

  该句的主语是economics, student needs and our new understanding,其中 economics 应该理解为“经济因素”。

  to break the monopoly 意为:“打破垄断”

  just as 引导方式状语从句

  译:但是经济因素、学生的需要以及我们对如何学习的新观点都必然要打破传统教育的垄断,正如卡车和飞机打破了铁路的垄断、计算机与芯片正在打破电话的垄断一样。

  In the next 10 or 15 years we will almost certainly see strong pressures to make schools responsible for thinking through what kind of learning methods are appropriate for each child.

  We will almost certainly see great pressure, from parents and students alike, for result-focused education and for accountability in meeting objectives set for individual students. ⒁

  14.result(名词——结果、效果)

  focus (动词——集中)

  accountability in 意为:“在…方面的责任感 ”

  set for individual students 过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰objectives 为各个学生制定的目标

  本句难理解的难点主要在介词和名词的搭配:great pressure … from … for … and for

  译:我们几乎肯定还会遇到来自父母及学生同样巨大的压力,要求讲究教育实效,要认真负责地实现为各个学生制定的教育目标。

  The continuing professional education of highly educated adults will become a third tier in addition to undergraduate and professional or graduate work. Above all, attention will shift back to schools and education as the central capital investment and infrastructure of a “knowledge society.”

  补充语法知识

  并列结构:在一些长句子里,经常出现并列结构,如:不定式的并列、动名词或名词短语的并列、介词短语的并列等等。掌握这些结构有利于长句的理解。要注意的是不能把不同类的词或短语并列或平行使用。

  例如:

  1.That problem is not solely how to be more productive, more comfortable, more content, but how to be more sensitive, more sensible, more proportionate, more alive.

  不定式的并列

  2.But the question persists and indeed grows whether the computer will make it easier or harder for human beings to know who they really are, to identity their real problems, to respond more fully to beauty, to place adequate value on life, and to make their world safer than it now is.

  不定式的并列

  3.Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to - the reality of pain in others; the possibilities of creative growth in himself; the memory of the race; and the rights of the next generation

  名词短语的并列

  4.The biggest single need in computer technology is not for increased speed, or enlarged capacity, or prolonged memory, or reduced size, but for better questions and better use of the answers.

  介词短语的并列

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