11.It is the intention of those who have constructed the apartheid society， and who intend that it should last forever， that those who make up the society should be prevented from communicating with each other. （ para. 11）
It 是形式主语，实际主语是 that those who make up the society should be prevented from communicating with each other.
句中有三个 who 引导定语从句修饰 those
12.Black and white must be cut off from each other， must be unable to communicate. （para.11）
be cut off 被隔绝
13.It is on this division that apartheid rests. （para.11）
to rest on /upon 意思是“建立在…之上，依靠”
But the real damage is in daily human relations. I have seen white children standing in one of the mixed buses rather than sit beside anyone who was not white and this seems to me so complete a rejection of another human person that it goes much further than the division and separation backed by law. ⒁From this kind of rejection comes a complete lack of any feeling of common humanity； ⒂the suffering of a human being ceases to be real because he has ceased to be a real human being.
14.…this seems to me so complete a rejection of another human person that it goes much further than the division and separation backed by law.（ para. 12）
much further than … ， 代词 it 指的是 rejection “排斥”
backed by law 是过去分词短语作定语
15.From this kind of rejection comes a complete lack of any feeling of common humanity.（para.12）
这是一个全部倒装句，谓语动词comes提到主语之前，倒装原因是主语a complete lack of any feeling of common humanity 过长。同时也为了更好地承接前文，前边刚提到rejection
This is the situation， which has been created in South Africa today. The tensions are real， the threat of a violent eruption constant. And this must not be thought of simply as the product of political factors of arguments. It is a simple truth that human relations between people have deteriorated so far that dialogue， understanding ， friendship - all these are impossible.⒃
This is the effect of apartheid in terms of society - this is its all pervasive extent： it breeds ，if it breeds anything ， hostility： often the result is simply the bitter sterility which will bring about violence.
16.It is a simple truth that human relations between people have deteriorated so far that dialogue， understanding， friendship all these are impossible. （ para. 13 ）
本句 it 是形式主语， that 引导主语从句，其中有一个so… that 结构。
① What‘s the use of my doing that ？
② I dislike John‘s coming to see me so often .
③ This young man somehow slipped a watch into his pocket without the teacher‘s knowing it.
① Nothing can stop me trying again.
② Do you mind John driving you home ？