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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(115)

2007-09-11 14:10   【 】【我要纠错

  5.本句indicate 后接两个由that 引导的宾语从句。本句意思:“最近研究表明,白日做梦是日常生活的一部分,每天白天做一定的梦对保持情绪平衡是必不可少的,科学已经发现,白日做梦是一种有效的松弛办法。”

  Daydreaming, science has discovered, is an effective relaxation technique. But its beneficial effects go beyond this.⑥

  6.to go beyond 超出,不止该句意思是:“但它的好处不止这些?quot;

  Experiments show that daydreaming significantly contributes to intellectual growth, powers of concentration, and the ability to interact and communicate with others.⑦

  equilibrium 是 指 多项 平 衡,balance 是 两项 平 衡

  7.本句中contribute to 之后是三个名词词组作并列宾语,即“智力发展”、“集中注意的能力”和“与他人交往、沟通的能力”。本句意思:“试验证明白日做梦对智力发展、注意力集中和同别人的交往和沟通有相当大的好处。”

  In an experiment with schoolchildren in New York, Dr. Joan Freyberg observed improved concentration: “There was less running around, more happy feelings, more talking and playing in the group, and more attention paid to detail.”

  In another experiment at Yale University, Dr. Jerome Singer found that daydreaming resulted in improved self-control and enhanced creative thinking ability.⑧

  8.在由that 引导的宾语从句中,resulted in 意为“造成,导致”,improved 和enhanced 都是过去分词作定语,分别修饰self-control 和creative thinking ability. 按照汉语习惯应译为:“有助于自我控制的改善和创造性思维能力的增?quot;

  Pupil当名词讲的时候,它是“小学生”。它的另外一个意思是眼睛里的瞳孔。

  小学有两种说法:primary school、elementary school.

  Daydreaming, Singer pointed out, is one way individuals can improve upon reality. It is, he concluded, a powerful spur to achievement.

  But the value of daydreaming does not stop here. It has been found that it improves a person‘s ability to be better adapted to practical, immediate concerns, to solve everyday problems, and to come up more readily with new ideas.⑨

  9.句中ability 后接三个由to 引起的不定式短语作后置定语,本句的意思是:“人们已经发现,它能改善一个人的能力,使他能更好地适应实际的紧迫的事务,解决日常问题并且更容易地提出新的想法。”

  Contrary to popular belief, constant and conscious effort at solving a problem is, in reality, one of the most inefficient ways of coping with it. While conscious initial effort is always necessary, effective solutions to especially severe problems frequently occur when conscious attempts to solve them have been put off. ⑩Inability to relax, to let go of a problem, often prevents its solution.

  Come up……… with 赶上 ;提 出 ,拿 出

  10.句中while 引导让步状语从句,表示“虽然,尽管”的意思。句子的主句中又有一个when引导的时间状语从句。在时间状语从句中conscious attempt是主语,attempt 后面的to solve them 是动词不定式短语作定语修饰attempt ,从句的谓语是have been put off .本句意思:“虽然最初的有意识的努力永远是必要的,但对特别困难问题的有效解决办法常常在这种有意识的努力遇到了阻碍的时候才会出现。”

  Historically, scientists and inventors are one group that seems to take full advantage of relaxed moments.⑾

  11.句中that 是引导定语从句修饰group

  本句意思:“在历史上,科学家和发明家是似乎能充分利用松弛时刻的一类人。”

  Their biographies reveal that their best ideas seem to have occurred when they were relaxing and daydreaming. It is well known, for example, that Newton solved many of his toughest problems when his attention was waylaid by private musings. Thomas Alva Edison also knew the value of “half waking” states. Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt with, he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind. ⑿

  12.句中whenever 加confronted 引导的过去分词短语作时间状语,也可以认为这是一个时间状语从句省略了he was . “task”后which seemed too hard to be dealt with 是定语从句修饰task .其中“too…to”表示“太…。以至于不…。”。本句意思:“无论什么时候他遇到一个似乎解决不了的问题时,他会躺在沙发上四肢舒展,让各种幻觉涌满他的脑海。”

  Painters, writers, and composers also have drawn heavily on their sensitivity to inner fantasies. Debussy used to gaze at the River Seine and the golden reflections of the selling sun to establish an atmosphere for creativity. Brahms found that ideas came effortless only when he approached a state of deep daydreaming. And Cesar Frank is said to have walked around with a dreamlike gaze while composing, seemingly totally unaware of his surroundings⒀

  13. 句中的“while composing”是现在分词结构作时间状语从句;“seemingly totally unaware of his surroundings 是形容词短语作伴随状语。其中”…is said to do sth“表示”据说某人做某事“。本句意思:”据说赛萨尔·弗兰克在作曲的时候,走来走去,朦胧凝眸,仿佛毫不意识周围的一切。“

  unaware of 没有意识到

  Long before, Before long对比

  例题:The face of the city will be changed before long.(城市的面貌不久将被改变。)

  Many successful people actually daydreamed their successes and achievements long before they realized them. Henry J. Kaiser maintained that “you can imagine your future,‘’ and he believed that a great part of his business success was due to positive use of daydreams. Harry S. Truman said that he used daydreaming for rest. Conrad Hilton dreamed of operating a hotel when he was a boy. He recalled that all his accomplishments were first realized in his imagination.

  “Great living starts with a picture, held in some person‘s imagination, of what he would like someday to do or be. ⒁

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