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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(143)

2007-09-11 14:54   【 】【我要纠错

  3.本句是以否定词nor 开头的部分倒装句,所以主谓倒装,在主语前加了助动词do.句中“he has to be connected to ”是things 的定语从句。破折号后面的四个名词短语是对things 的补充说明。

  电脑也不能把人和应该与人有关系的事情联系起来。例如,别人的痛苦的现实、提高自身创造力的可能性、人类的记忆、以及下一代人的权利等等。

  The reason these matters are important in a computerized age is that there may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom, just as there has always been a tendency to confuse logic with values, and intelligence with insight.④

  4.句中“these matters are important in a computerized age”是省略了关系副词why 的定语从句,修饰the reason.在reason, way 等词后的定语从句一般都可省去连接词。本句的谓语是is ,表语是that 引导的表语从句;just as 引导了方式状语从句,正如…一样。“tendency”后的不定式是它的定语。

  confuse…with…(把什么和什么混淆)

  在计算机化时代,上述这些问题之所以重要是因为人们可能倾向于把数据误认为智慧,正如人们总是倾向于把逻辑与价值相混淆,把智能与洞察力混为一谈一样。

  Easy and convenient access to facts can produce unlimited good only if it is matched by the desire and ability to find out what they mean and where they would lead.⑤

  5.本句的主语是access , 这个名词后边可以跟介词短语to表示接触的对象。在 if 从句中,

  it 指代的是access,they 指代 facts , to find out what they mean and where they would lead 为desire and ability 的定语。

  方便快捷地获得信息,只有在人们有愿望和能力搞清这些信息意味着什么和会把人们引向何方时,才能够给人带来无限的好处。

  match(当动词讲时是相配、相符。)

  例:match maker(配对的人,来牵线搭桥的人。)

  Facts are terrible things if left spreading and unexamined.⑥ They are too easily regarded as evaluated certainties rather than as the rawest of raw materials crying to be processed into the texture of logic. It requires a very unusual mind, Whitehead said, to undertake the analysis of a fact. The computer can provide a correct number, but it may be an irrelevant number until judgment is pronounced.

  if+过去分词

  6.句中“if left spreading and unexamined ”是过去分词加连接词的形式,在句中作条件状语,相当于if they are left spreading and unexamined 的省略形式。

  信息如果任其泛滥,不加审核,那是可怕的事情。

  be regarded as…(被认为)

  cry to do something(迫切需要……)

  To the extent, then, that man fails to distinguish between the intermediate operations of electronic intelligence and the ultimate responsibilities of human decision, the computer could prove a digression.⑦

  7.句中that 引导的是同位语从句,作the extent 的同位语,表示“在…的程度上”,“在…的情况下”;fail to do sth. 表示“不能做某事,无法做某事”。

  between A and B(名词短语)

  因此,在人们不能区别电子智能的这种中间运算与人们决策最终责任的情况下,

  计算机可能反而是一种节外生枝。

  It could obscure man‘s awareness of the need to come to terms with himself. It may foster the illusion that he is asking fundamental questions when actually he is asking only functional ones. ⑧It may be regarded as a substitute for intelligence instead of an extension of it. It may promote undue confidence in concrete answers. “If we begin with certainties.” Bacon said, “we shall end in doubts but if we begin with doubts, and we are patient with them, we shall end in certainties.”

  It may…(他有可能)

  foster(形容词-收养的;动词-造成)

  8.that 引导illusion 的同位语从句。ones 指 questions

  当人们实际只提出功能性问题时,计算机可能使人造成这样的错觉:他们提出的是根本性的问题。

  The computer knows how to conquer error, but before we lose ourselves in celebrating the victory, we might reflect on the great advances in the human situation that have come about because men were challenged by error and would not stop thinking and exploring until they found better approaches for dealing with it.⑨

  lose oneself in(沉湎于,热衷于)

  9.本句的主句是but 连接的并列句:The computer knows how to conquer error 和we might reflect on the great advances in the human situation.其中“that have come…到句尾”是一个定语从句,修饰“the great advances”;在这个定语从句中,带有because引导的原因状语从句,原因状语从句中又套有一个until 引导的时间状语从句。

  计算机知道如何战胜错误,但是在我们沉醉于庆祝这一成就前,我们也许应该深思,人类以往所取得的巨大进步都是因为人们受到错误挑战并且不断地思考与探索,直到找到对付错误的更好的办法。

  “Give me a good fruitful error, full of seeds, bursting with its own corrections,” Ferris Greenslet wrote, “You can keep your sterile truth for yourself.”

  burst (动词-充满、炸裂)

  The biggest single need in computer technology is not for increased speed, or enlarged capacity, or prolonged memory, or reduced size, but for better questions and better use of the answers. Without taking anything away from the technicians, we think it might be fruitful to effect some sort of junction between the computer technologist and the poet. ⑩

  not for

  but for…(而是)

  effect(名词-效果、影响;动词-产生)

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