1.scarce： a. 缺乏的，不足的；稀有的，珍贵的
e.g. Firewood is scarce in many parts of the world. 世界上很多地区都缺乏木材。
Scarce resources should be used sensibly. 稀有资源的使用应该合理。
2. expansion： n. 扩张，膨胀
派生词：expand v. 扩张，膨胀
e.g. Expansion into new areas of research is possible. 扩展到新的研究领域是有可能的。
3.promotion： n. 促进；提升
派生词：promote v. 促进，提升
e.g. As part of their sales promotion they‘re giving away a free pair of socks with each holiday.
4. award ： vt. / n. 授予，给予，判给
e.g. He was awarded his damages by the court . 法院判给他损失赔偿费。
reward 意思是“报答，报应，报偿”。而且reward 后面一般要加with .
e.g. He was rewarded with $10000. 他被奖励10000 美元。
5.integrate v. 使结合，使并入，使成为一体
e.g. It‘s very difficult to integrate yourself into a society whose culture is so different from your own.
6.diversity n. 多样性
e.g. Does television adequately reflect the ethnic and cultural diversity of the country ？
7.permissive adj. 容许的，许可的，随意的，开放的
e.g. He claims that society has been far too permissive towards drug taking.
8.prescribe vt. 指示，规定，开处方，开药
e.g. The law prescribes that all children must go to school.
Painkillers have been prescribed for me.
9.route n…… 路线，航线
e.g. I live on a bus route so I can easily get to work.
1.on the contrary ： 相反地
e.g. It doesn‘t seem ugly to me； on the contrary， I think it’s rather beautiful.
2.demand for ： 对…的要求，对…的需求
e.g. The workers‘ demands for higher pay were refused by the employers.
3.to go along with ： 和…一起
e.g. He has decided to go along with his father. 他决定跟着父亲走。
Changes to Come in U.S Education
The biggest “infrastructure” challenge for the United States in the next decade is not the billions needed for railroads， highways and energy. It Is the American school system， from kindergarten through the Ph.D. program and the postgraduate education of adults. And it requires something far scarcer than money - thinking and risk-taking.
The challenge is not one of expansion. On the contrary， the rapid growth in enrollment over the last 40 years has come to an end. ⑴
1.on the contrary， “相反地”
注意本句的时态： 用的是现在完成时，因为有一个明显的时间状语over the last 40 years.
By 1978， more than 93 percent of young people entering the labor force had at least an eighth-grade education. So even if the birthrate should rise somewhat， little expansion is possible for elementary and secondary school enrollments.
The last 30 years of social upheaval are also over. Busing will continue to be a highly emotional issue in a good many large cities. And there will still be efforts to use schools to bring women into fields such as engineering that have traditionally been considered “made.” But this shift has already been accomplished in many fields： half or more of the accounting students in graduate schools of business， for example， are now women.
As for most other social issues， the country will no longer try to use schools to bring about social reform. ⑵