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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(104)

2007-09-11 13:44   【 】【我要纠错

  4.to aim for: 瞄准;以…为目标

  We are aiming for a 50% share of the German market.

  我们的目标是取得德国市场50%的份额。

  She was aiming for a promotion. 她想获得提升。

  课文精讲:

  Sacrificed to Science?

  Professor Colin Blakemore works at Oxford University Medical School doing research into eye problems and believes that animal research has given humans many benefits:①

  1.句中doing research into eye problems 是一个现在分词短语作状语,起补充说明的作用;believes 作works 的并列谓语;that 引导的从句作believe的宾语从句。

  本句译文:“科林·布莱克默教授任职于牛津大学医学院,正在对眼睛疾病进行研究,他认为,用动物进行研究给人带来了很多好处。”

  The use of animals has been central to the development of anaesthetics, vaccines and treatments for diabetes, cancer, developmental disorders……most of the major medical advances have been based on a background of animal research and development.

  There are those who think the tests are simply unnecessary. The International Association Against Painful Experiments on Animals is an organization that promotes the use of alternative methods of research which do not make animals suffer. Their spokesman Colin Smith says:

  make animals suffer 中的“suffer”是其实是不带“to”的不定式,是不定式作宾补的结构。

  Animal research is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results. People and animals are different in their reactions to drugs and in the way their bodies work. We only have to look at some of the medical mistakes to see this is so.

  But Professor Blackmore stresses:

  It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals. ②The famous example of thalidomide is a case for more animals testing, not less. ③The birth defects that the drug produced were a result of inadequate testing. If thalidomide were invented today, it would never be released for human use because new tests on pregnant animals would reveal the dangers.④

  2.本句用了虚拟语气,是与现在事实相反的假设。虽然没有用虚拟条件句的形式,但表示虚拟的意义。因为作者认为,药品不经动物实验就用在人身体上的可能性极小。

  that 引导的定语从句修饰先行词drugs.把本句改为虚拟条件句:It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people if they had not been thoroughly tested on animals.

  本句译文:“如果把还没有在动物身上彻底实验过的药物用在人身上,那是完全不负责任和不道德的。”

  3.为了避免重复,less后面省略了animal testing. 句意为:“著名的萨立多胺的例子就说明应该对动物进行更多的试验,而不是更少。”

  4.本句也是一句表示与现在情况相反的虚拟条件句。在虚拟条件中,动词be 不管用于什么人称都用were.“because”引导的从句为原因状语从句。

  本句译文:“如果萨立多胺是今天发明的,它就决不会用在人身上,因为对怀孕的动物的新试验将会发现这种危险。”

  Another organization that is developing other methods of research is FRAME. This is the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments. It recognizes that many experiments still have to be done on animals and is aiming for Reduction. Refinement and Replacement of animals in experiments. In 1981, it established a research programme to improve and expand non-animal testing. Increasingly, new technology is making it easier for us to find alternative methods of testing. Computer models can be used to simulate the way that cells work and to try to predict the toxicity of chemicals.⑤ Data from previous animal experiments is used to develop a computer model which will predict what will happen if you add a chemical with an unknown biological effect to a substance.⑥ The eventual aim of computer modeling is to reduce the number of animals used in experiments.

  5.此句中to simulate the way和 to try to predict the toxicity of chemicals 是并列状语,用来表示使用计算机模型的目的。 that cells work 是定语从句,修饰the way.

  本句译文:“计算机模型可用来模拟细胞的活动方式和预报化学药品的毒性”

  6.在本句中,共有三个从句:

  名词+ which 引导的一个定语从句修饰名词model;

  what 引导一个宾语从句,作动词predict 的宾语;

  if 引导一个条件状语从句,作happen的状语。其中add…to 是一个动词词组,意思是“把…增加到…”。

  本句译文:可用从以前的动物实验获取的数据来建立一个计算机模型,这个模型能够预报如果将某一生物效果不明的化学药品添加到另一种物质上将会出现什么情况。

  The Lethal Dose 50 test (LD50) may also be replaced. In the original test, all the animals in a test group are given a substance until half of them die. The test indicates toxicity. A method using a fixed amount, which gives the same eventual information but uses fever animals and does not require that they die, may replace the LD50.⑦ Many other new techniques are now available that enable more research to be done in the test tube to see if chemicals produce harmful biological effects.⑧

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