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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(99)

2007-09-10 16:57   【 】【我要纠错

  5.The system of elections makes it easy for the major parties to maintain their dominant position, because they are likely to win more than their share of the offices. (para.4)

  句中 it 是形式宾语,不定式to maintain their dominant position 是实际宾语,the major parties是不定式的逻辑主语。

  “这种选举制度使大党容易保持优势地位,因为他们赢得的席位有可能多于应得到的席位。”

  One of the great consequences of the system is that it produces majorities automatically. Because there are only two competitors in the running, it is almost inevitable that one will receive a majority. Moreover, he system tends slightly to exaggerate the victory of the winning party. This is not always true, but the strong tendency to produce majorities is built into the system.

  In over 200 years of constitutional history, Americans have learned much about the way in which the system can be managed so as to make possible the peaceful transfer of power from one party to the other.⑥ At he level of presidential elections, the party in power has been overturned by the party out of power nineteen times, almost once a decade. In the election of 1860, the political system broke down, and the Civil War, the worst disaster in American history, resulted. Our history justifies our confidence in the system but also shows that it is not foolproof.

  6.In over 200 years of constitutional history, Americans have learned much about the way in which the system can be managed so as to make possible the peaceful transfer of power from one party to the other. (para.6)

  句中的in which 引导的定语从句,修饰the way.

  其中,the peaceful transfer of power from one party to the other 是make 的宾语,possible 是宾语补语;因宾语太长,所以后置。to make … possible 使…成为可能

  e.g. His financial support made our trips possible. 他在经济方面的支持使我们的出行成为可能。

  Modern technology makes possible human‘s visits to the outer space. 现代科技使人类访问外层空间成为可能。

  The second major party is able to survive a defeat because the statistical tendency that exaggerates the victory of the winning party operates even more strongly in favor of the second party against the third, fourth, and fifth parties.⑦ As a result, the defeated major party is able to maintain a monopoly of the opposition. The advantage of the second party over the third is so great it is the only party that is likely to be able to overturn the party in power.⑧ It is able, there fore, to attract the support of everyone seriously opposed to the party in power. ⑨The second party is important as long as it can monopolize the movement to overthrow the party in power, because it is certain to come into power sooner or later.

  7.The second major party is able to survive a defeat because the statistical tendency that exaggerates the victory of the winning party operates even more strongly in favor of the second party against the third, forth, and fifth parties.(para.7)

  句子的主干是:主句+because 引导的原因状语从句,原因状语从句中有一个定语从句,由that引导,修饰the statistical tendency

  8.The advantage of the second party over the third is so great that it is the only party that is likely to be able to overturn the party in power. (para.7)

  英语中表示“比… 有优势”可用“advantage over …。”

  e.g. We have one advantage over our rivals: our player are taller. 我们比对方胜过一筹,我们的队员个子比较高。

  9.It is able, therefore, to attract the support of everyone seriously opposed to the party

  in power.(para.7)

  to oppose to the party in power 反对执政党

  Another consequence of the two-party system is that whereas minor parties are likely to identify themselves with special interests or special programs and thus take extreme positions, the major parties are so large that they tend to be moderate.⑩ Evidence of the moderation of the major parties is that much business is conducted across party lines. What happens when the Democrats control one house of Congress and the Republicans control the other? About the same volume of legislation is passed as when one party controls both houses, although some important legislation is likely to be blocked temporarily. It is possible to carry on the work of the government even when party control is divided because party differences are not fundamental.

  10.Another consequence of the two-party system is that whereas minor parties are likely to identify themselves with special interests or special programs and thus take extreme positions, the major parties are so large that they tend to be moderate.

  本句的主干为“主句+ that 引导的表语从句”,表语从句较长,是由whereas引导的一个并列句。本句意思是:“两党制的另一个结果是小党很可能认同某种特殊利益或特殊计划而采取极端立场,而大党则因为如此庞大,所以倾向于中庸之道。”

  语法 练习

  补充语法知识:动名词的用法

  动名词相当于名词,在句中充当主语、宾语、表语和定语

  一、作主语

  Forgetting the past means betrayal.

  There is no joking about such matters.

  It is no use waiting here.

  二、作宾语

  1.作及物动词的宾语:一些及物动词后边要求跟动名词作宾语(参看上册P284)

  例如:practice, enjoy, appreciate, suggest, excuse, pardon, avoid, postpone,

  delay, mind, admit, risk, miss, deny, resist,

  You should practice speaking the language every day.

本文转载链接:自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(99)

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