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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(96)

2007-09-10 16:54   【 】【我要纠错

  4.在本句中,deciding 作介词in 的宾语;in deciding作时间状语,表示:“在做某事的过程中”

  whether to pursue a course of action是一个带疑问词的不定式短语,作动名词deciding 的宾语;表示:“在决定是否遵循某一行动方针时”。

  to estimate its likely impact on the voters 是不定式短语作try 的宾语,其中impact on 是一个名词词组,意为“对…的影响”。

  全句意思:“在决定是否遵循某一项行动方针时,他们要尽量估计一下该方针对选民可能具有的影响。”

  5.该句是由and 连接两个并列谓语加上一个定语从句构成的复合句。which 引导的定语从句修饰economy , 属非限制性定语从句,只起补充说明作用。that 引导限制性定语从句,修饰the issue

  此句意思:“这一口号是克林顿的总战略家詹姆斯·卡维尔的主意,其用意是想提醒候选人及总部人员始终把竞选的注意力集中在本国缓慢发展的经济上。而这一点正是最终击败布什的问题。”

  6.在此句中 as in 1980 是时间状语,as 的意思是“正如”。when Jimmy Carter lost to Ronald Reagan during tough economic times 是非限制性定语从句,修饰1980.

  正如1980年在经济艰难时期吉米·卡特败与罗纳德·里根时那样,选民很大程度上是被他们想变革的欲望调动起来的。

  Candidates try to project a strong leadership image. Whether voters accept this image, however, depends more on external factors than on a candidate‘s personal characteristics.⑦ In 1991, after the Gulf War, Bush’s approval rating reached 91 percent, the highest level recorded since polling began in the 1930s.⑧ A year later, with the nation‘s economy in trouble, Bush’s approval rating dropped below 40 percent. ⑨Bush tried to stir images of his strong leadership of the war, but voters remained concerned about the economy. ⑽

  7.本句是一个主从复合句,“whether voters accept this image” 是主语从句作主语。

  此句意思:“然而选民们是否接受这一形象则更取决于外在因素而不是候选人的个人特征。”

  8.句中the highest level recorded since polling began in the 1930s 是91 percent 的同位语。recorded 是过去分词作后置定语修饰the highest level.

  此句意思:“1991年海湾战争以后,布什的支持率达到91%,这是自20世纪30年代开始民意测验以来的最高记录。”

  9.句中with the nation‘s economy in trouble.作伴随状语

  “一年以后,随着国家经济陷入困境,布什的支持率则下降到40%以下。”

  “ with + 名词 + 介词词组/形容词/分词 ”结构常在句中作状语,表示伴随条件或原因等

  举例: ①with + 名词+ 动词现在分词

  He didn‘t take part in the party, with his mother being ill. 因为他妈妈病了,所以他没有参加晚会。

  ②with +名词+动词过去分词

  With all the housework done, she went shopping. 干完了所有的家务后,她便去购物。

  ③with + 名词+形容词

  With the window open, he fell asleep. 他开着窗户睡着了。

  ④with + 名词+ 介词

  The lecturer walked in with a file under his arm. 演讲者掖下夹着一个文件走了进来。

  He went out with no hat on. 他没戴帽子出去了。

  10.句中remained是系动词,concerned about the economy 是表语。

  “布什试图重振其战争期间强有力的领导者形象,但选民们始终关心的是经济。”

  The candidates‘ strategies are shaped by many considerations, including the constitutional provision that each state shall have electoral votes equal in number to its representation in Congress. ⑾ Each state thus gets two electoral votes for its Senate representation and a varying number of electoral votes depending on its House representation. Altogether, there are 538 electoral votes (including three for the District of Columbia, even though it has no voting representatives in Congress)。 To win the presidency, a candidate must receive at least 270 votes, an electoral majority. ⑿

  11.including the constitutional provision that each state shall have electoral votes equal in number to its representation in Congress. 分词短语,起补充说明的作用。其中that引导的是provision同位语从句,equal in number to its representation in Congress 是形容词短语作后置定语,修饰 votes ,

  短语的译文“包括宪法的这一条款:每个州具有的选举人票数与其在国会中的代表人数相同。”

  12.To win the presidency, 是全句的目的状语,an electoral majority 是270 votes 的同位语

  要赢得总统席位,候选人必须至少获得270票,即选票的大多数。

  Candidates are particularly concerned with winning the states which have the largest population,⒀ such as California (with 54 electoral votes), New York (33), Texas (32), Florida (25), Pennsylvania (23), Illinois (22), and Ohio (21)。 Victory in the eleven largest slates alone would provide an electoral majority, ⒁ and presidential candidates therefore spend most of their time campaigning in those states. Clinton received only 43 percent of the popular vote in 1992, compared with Bush‘s 38 percent and Perot’s 19 percent; but Clinton won in states that gave him an overwhelming 370 electoral votes, compared with 168 for Bush and none for Perot.

  13.句中which引导的定语从句修饰states, 意为“人口最多的州”

  候选人特别关注人口最多的几个州的州选举中获胜

  14.句意为:“仅在这11个最大的州获胜就可以获得选举的多数” 事实上,在11个最大的州同时获胜几乎是不可能的,因此本句用了虚拟语气 would provide

  alone 是形容词,用于名词或代词后,意为“仅仅,只”

  例: You alone can do it .只有你能作这事。

  Time alone will show who was right. 只有时间能表明谁对。

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