31.representative：n./ a…… 代表，代表人；典型的，有代表性的
派生词：represent v. 代表 ；representation n.表现，代表
Many representatives of the older generation were there. 老一辈的各类代表都在那里。
Is a questionnaire answered by 500 people truly representative of national opinion？
32.presidency n. 总统职务
33.overwhelming a. 压倒之势的
1.to stand no chance 没有可能，没有希望
He stands no chance of winning the election. 他没有希望在选举中获胜。
to stand a chance 有可能，有希望
He stands a good chance of passing the examination. 他考试及格很有希望。
2.to identify …as： 把… 看成，确认
He always identifies himself as one of the commoners.
Do you identify yourself as an optimist or a pessimist？
I identified the stolen recorder as mine. 我认为那个被偷的录音机是我的。
3.impact on： 对…的影响
The book made a great impact on its readers.
The invention and application of computer exert a great impact on modern industry.
The Campaign for Election
Although presidential elections occur every 4 years， many people feel that they do not have a true understanding of how presidential campaigns operate.
The winner in the November general election is almost certain to be either the Republican or the Democratic nominee.①A minor-party or independent candidate， such as George Wallace in 1968， John Anderson in 1980， or Ross Perot in 1992 and 1996， can draw votes away from the major-party nominees but stands almost no chance of defeating them.②
1.此句中，be certain to do sth. 表示“一定会做某事”。
例：He is certain to agree with the plan. 他肯定会同意这个计划的。
“either … or”表示“或者…或者”。
2.在本句中，“draw … away from …”表示“把…从…拉走；吸引开”
例如：The on-going performance outside the classroom drew the students‘ attention away from their books. 教室外面正在进行的表演把学生的注意力从书本上吸引开了。
“stand almost no chance of …。”表示“几乎没有可能”。
A major-party nominee has the critical advantage of support from the party faithful. Earlier in the twentieth century， this support was so firm and steady that the victory of the stronger party‘s candidate was almost a certainty. Warren G. Harding accepted the 1920 Republican nomination at his Ohio home， stayed there throughout most of the campaign， and won a full victory simply because most of the voters of his time were Republicans. ③Party loyalty has declined in recent decades， but more than two-thirds of the nation’s voters still identify themselves as Democrats or Republicans， and most of them support their party‘s presidential candidate. Even Democrat George McGovern， who had the lowest level of party support among recent nominees， was backed in 1972 by nearly 60 percent of his party’s voters.
Presidential candidates act strategically. In deciding whether to pursue a course of action， they try to estimate its likely impact on the voters.④ During the 1992 campaign， a sign on the wall of Clinton‘s headquarters in Little Rock read， “The Economy， Stupid.” The slogan was the idea of James Carville， Clinton’s chief strategist， and was meant as a reminder to the candidate and the staff to keep the campaign focused on the nation‘s slow-moving economy， which ultimately was the issue that defeated Bush.⑤ As in 1980， when Jimmy Carter lost to Ronald Reagan during tough economic times， the voters were motivated largely by a desire for change.⑥