A word formation approach that attaches morpheme – an affix to a base， which is a word with 1 or more affixes in it.
A compound， the product of composition， and it is a lexical unit consisting of more than one base and functioning both grammatically and semantically as a single word.
The derivational process whereby an item is adapted or converted to a new word class without the addition of an affix.
Acronyms is a word coined by putting together the initial letters of a group of words.
Verb Phrase （p16）
The head word of a verb phrase is the main verb. Two elements in the structure are important： the main verb and auxiliaries.
Finite Verb Phrase （p17）
Its head word is a finite verb， which is restricted by tense and keeps concord with the subject.
Non-finite Verb Phrase （p17）
Its first element is a non-finite verb free from the restrict of tense and concord of subject.
YES-NO questions （p37）
YES-NO questions can be answered by “Yes” or “No”
WH-questions begin with WH-series of words.
（What if = what should I do P41， How come = why P42）
Tag questions （p43）
A tag question normally consists of a statement and a question tag.
Express our impression， especially our surprise， excitement， amazement， etc. It doesn‘t take S-V inversion.
Proper Nouns （p56）
Proper nouns denote individual persons， places， etc， normally begins with a capital letter， has no plural form and can‘t occur after an article.
Countable nouns （p57）
Nouns that can take plural.
Mass nouns （p57）
Nouns that can‘t take plural.
Collective nouns （p57）
These are generally countable nouns， but even in the singular they refer to groups of people， animals or things.
Foreign plurals （p62）
Words that are borrowed from other languages often have foreign plurals.
Unit nouns （P65）
Unit nouns are used to specify the quantities of the modified noun.
Words used in the premodification of noun phrase and put before any adjectives that premodify the head word of noun.
A pseudo-passive sentence is passive in form but active in meaning. Its ed-participle is adjectivalized； it can occur in a comparative construction， with a variety of prepositional phrases other than by-phrase， and with other link verbs besides be and get.
Predictive meaning （epistemic） P162
The predictive meaning， rather homogeneous in nature， is concerned with the speaker‘s assumption or assessment of probability and indicates the speaker’s confidence in the truth of his statement.
Non-predictive （non-epistemic） p163
Non-predictive meanings of modal auxiliaries are very heterogeneous in nature， this category covers a variety of meanings， except “prediction”。
Putative Should （p178）
Putative should is not very meaningful in its own right； in many cases， its function is to fill in a structural slot. This use of should is commonly found in the that-clause after an adjective or a noun denoting a feeling or an opinion.
e.g. It‘s strange that she should wear her evening dress for such an informal party.
The infinitive occurs as a verb in the base form which may go with or without to.
Subject complement （P210）
Semantically， subject complements denote what the subject is or what the subject becomes – the two notions that are most typically expressed by be and become.
Stative adjectives （P222） 静态形容词
The majority of adjectives are stative in nature， describing permanent inherent qualities.
e.g. a big house
Dynamic adjectives （P222） 动态形容词
Many adjectives can also be used in the dynamic sense （be being a.） in predicative position to show subjective measurement or suggest a temporary state， implying the qualities can be controlled or restricted. （e.g. he is being rude）
Inherent adjectives （P223） 本意形容词
Inherent adjectives denote inherent qualities characterize the referent of the noun. （e.g a big house）
Non-inherent adjectives （P223） 非本意形容词
Non-inherent adjectives identify qualities in an indirect way. （e.g. a big eater）
Restrictive adjectives （P224） 限定性形容词
Restrictive adjectives help identify the noun by describing its distinctive qualities
（e.g. a fat woman）
Non-restrictive adjectives （P224） 非限定性形容词
Non-restrictive adjectives provide additional information not essential for the identification of the noun. Adjective modifying proper noun are normally non-restrictive. （e.g. my fat wife）
Coordination （P259） 并列词
Realized by coordinators （also termed coordinating conjunctions） which join units at the same level.
Subordination （P259） 主从连接词
Realized by subordinators （also termed subordinating conjunctions）， involves the linking of units at different levels so that they form a hierarchy. A subordinator introduces a subordinate clause which is attached to the main clause （also termed the superordinate clause）。
end-focus （P355） 尾部焦点
under neutral conditions， the nucleus falls on the last element of the sequence as it is common that we process the information in a message to achieve a linear presentation form low to high information value. We refer to this as the principle of end-focus.
Refers to a unified passage and it is a semantic unit. It is structurally well-integrated， and semantically coherent.
using grammatical pro-form which explicitly/clearly refer elsewhere
cuts off part of the sentence （ a word， phrase， or a clause） and fills in the gap with a smaller item， which corresponds to the replace item.
leaves out the redundant/wordy part and do not provide a substitute.
exophoric reference 语言外照应 （P382）
Nonlinguistic or situational context.
endophoric reference 语言内照应 （P382）
Linguistic or textual context
anaphoric reference 前照应 （P383/285）
A demonstrative determiner with anaphoric reference is more likely to go with a non-restrictive relative clause
cataphoric reference 后照应 （P383/285）
A demonstrative determiner with cataphoric reference， which goes with a restrictive relative clause