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自考英语语法复习资料(38)

2007-05-25 09:26   【 】【我要纠错

  (20)倒装句

  1. 倒装句的定义

  英语最基本的词序是主语在谓语动词的前面。如果把谓语动词放在主语前面,就叫做倒装。

  2. 倒装句的构成

  a) 完全倒装

  将句子的主语和谓语完全颠倒过来,称之为完全倒装。例如:

  Are you from here? 你是本地人吗?

  Now comes the chance. 机会来了。

  b) 部分倒装

  只将助动词、系动词或情态动词移至主语之前,谓语的其他部分仍保留在主语的后面,称之为部分倒装。例如:

  Has he come? 他来了吗?

  Seldom have we felt as comfortable as here. 我们难得像在这里这么舒服。

  Only in this way can we do the work better. 只有这样我们才能把工作做得更好。

  3. 倒装的原因

  a) 句子语法结构的需要。例如:

  Did you attend the meeting? 你参加会议了吗?

  Long live peace! 和平万岁!

  b) 一些句型的固定用法。例如:

  Such were his last words. 他最后的话就是这样。

  c)强调的需要。倒装以后,句子更加流畅生动。例如:

  Never before have we seen such a sight. 以前我们从来没有见过这样的情景。

  Before us lay a lot of difficulties. 在我们前面有很多困难。

  Often did we warn them not to do so. 我们曾多次警告他们不要这样做。

  4. 倒装句的基本用法

  a) 构成疑问句(除对主语或主语之定语提问的特殊疑问句外):

  When are we going to drink to your happiness? 我们什么时候喝你们的喜酒?

  Have you seen the film? 你看了那部电影吗?

  b) 在以here, there, now, then, in, away, up down等副词开头的句子中:

  Away went the crowd one by one. 人们一个一个地离去。

  Here comes our teacher! 我们的老师来了!

  c) 副词only+状语放在句首时:

  Only then did he realize his mistakes . 只有在那时他才认识到自己的错误。

  Only in this way can you learn maths well . 只有用这种方法你才能学好数学。

  d) 含有否定意义的副词或连词(如little, hardly, never, rarely, no sooner…than等)放在句首时:

  Little did I think that he could be back alive. 我没有想到他竟能活着回来。

  Not until New Year‘s Day shall I give you a gift. 我要到元旦那天才能给你礼物。

  Hardly had the train arrived at the station when we ran towards the sleeping car looking for our guests. 火车刚一进站,我们就跑到卧车那儿去找我们的客人。

  e) 副词so或 neither(nor)在句首:

  He is interested in pop-songs, and so am I.他对流行歌曲感兴趣,我也如此。

  He hasn‘t been to the countryside, neither does he want to go there.他没有去过农村,他也不想去那里。

  f) 在方式状语thus开头的句子中及程度状语so放句首:

  Thus ended his life. 这样结束了他的生命。

  So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him . 他讲话的声音那样大,连隔壁屋子里的人都听得见。

  So small were the words that he could hardly see them. 字那么小,他几乎看不见。

  1. 在以here, there, now, then, in, away, up down等副词开头的句子中,如果主语是人称代词,主语和谓语不须倒装。例如:

  There he comes. 他来了。

  Away they hurried. 他们急忙走开了。

  2. so作“也”讲时,引导的句子用倒装语序,例如:

  He went to the film last night. So did I. 他昨天晚上去看电影了,我也去了。

  如不作“也”讲而只起连词作用,表示一种结果的意思,句子就要用正常语序。例如:

  His mother told him to go to the film. So he did. 他母亲叫他去看电影,他就去了。

  “He is a tall thin man.” “So he is.” “他又高又瘦。” “确实如此。”

  3. 某些让步状语从句往往把表语提到主语前面或放在句首,以构成倒装结构。例如:

  No matter how interesting the book is,he doesn‘t like to read it.不管这本书多有趣,他都不想看。

  However hard a solid may be,we can change its shape. 不管一个固体有多硬,我们都可以改变其形状。

  Young as he is, he knows a lot. 虽然他年轻,却知道很多东西。

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