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自考英语语法复习资料(37)

2007-05-25 09:26   【 】【我要纠错

  46)It is the chairman of the committee that they elected him. 他们选他是作委员会主席。

  47)It is green that they have painted the wall. 他们把墙壁漆的是绿色。

  注:(1)当强调的中心成分为主语,指人时可用连词that或who,如上述例(31)、(34)、(38),强调其余的成分时,连词一律用that.

  (2)分裂句中的that与who在非正式文体中可以省略,如:

  48)It was the President himself spoke to me. 是总统亲自和我谈了话。(省去从句主语who)

  49)It was the dog I gave the water to. 我是给那条狗水的。(省去从句的宾语that)

  50)It was yesterday I first noticed it. 我是昨天开始注意到的。(省去从句连词that)

  有时还可省去句首的it is,如:

  51)A good, honest trade you are learning, Sir Peter! 彼得爵士,你学得是一种很好而诚实的一行啊!

  (3)分裂句中的被强调部分有时可放在句首,如:

  52)Now was it that his life was done, and the fate which he could not escape was upon him.

  就在这时,他的生命完结了,他所逃不脱的命运降临了。

  53)When was it that he arrived at the village? 是何时他到达了这个村子?

  54)Why was it that he was late for school? 他是为什么上学迟到的?

  1. 分裂句引导词it与先行词it的区别: 比较:

  55)It is surprising that Mary should have won the first place. 玛丽本应获得第一名,真令人吃惊!(先行词it)

  56)It is Mary that has won the first place. 是玛丽获得了第一名。(分裂句引导词it)

  2. 虚义it与分裂句引导词it的区别。 比较:

  57)It was three o'clock in the morning when his father came back.(虚义it指时间) 他父亲回来时是凌晨3点。

  58)It was at three o'clock in the morning that his father came back. (分裂句引导词it) 他父亲是在凌晨3点回来的。

  3. 分裂句中that/who- 从句与that/who引导的定语从句之区别。 比较:

  59)It is money that is most needed.(分裂句中的that-从句) 最需要的是钱。

  60)This is the money that is most needed.(that引导定语从句) 这就是最需要的钱。

  61)It is Mary who has broken the glass…… (分裂句中的who-从句) 是玛丽打破了玻璃杯。

  62)Mary is the girl who has won the first place.(who引导定语从句) 玛丽是获得第一名的姑娘。

  区别方法:如将句型It is/was… that结构去掉,而句子能还原成普通陈述句,则该句是分裂句,否则不是。如(56)例去掉It is …that 则变成: Mary has won the first place. 玛丽获得了第一名。

  (58)例变成:His father came back at three o'clock in the morning. 他父亲在凌晨3点回来。

  (59)例变成:Money is most needed. 钱是最需要的。

  (61)例变成:Mary has broken the glass. 玛丽打破了玻璃杯。

  4. “拟似”分裂句

  如前所述,一般分裂句是不可以用简单陈述句的谓语动词作为中心成分的。如果要强调谓语动词,就得采用另外一种强调句型,这种句型又叫做“拟似”分裂句。如:

  63)I gave her a book. What I did was (to) give her a look. 我所做的是给她一本书。

  64)He took a plane to Beijing. What he did was (to) take a plane to Beijing. 他所做的是乘飞机去北京。

  65)The student is going to write an article. What the student is going to do is(to) write an article.

  这个学生要做的是写一篇文章。

  “拟似”分裂句的主语通常是由what引导的名词性从句,从句的主动词通常是do的一定形式;这种分裂句的主语补语通常是不定式结构,可带to,也可不带to,它构成“拟似”分裂句的信息中心。

  “拟似”分裂句还可采取另外一种形式,即“what-从句+be+名词词组”的形式,如:

  66)What he gave her was a handbag. 他所给她的是个提包。

  也可采取“名词词组+be+what-从句”的形式

  67)A handbag was what he gave her. 提包就是他所给她的。

  1. 用先行词it改写下列句子:

  (1)Possibly the Joneses will come to the party as well.

  (2)Whether they will come or not doesn't matter very much.

  (3)He is quite likely to let you down.

  (4)You seem to have taken a dislike to him.

  (5)I happen to have had some nasty experiences in dealing with him.

  (6)Getting the car on the boat was rather complicated.

  (7)To be with you here this evening is a great pleasure.

  (8)You were so kind to invite us.

  (9)What you say does not matter in the least.

  (10)How he came to have such a valuable painting is a mystery.

  2. 翻译下列句子:

  (1)冬天,天色晚得早。

  (2)问她没有用,她什么也不知道。

  (3)从这儿到车站有两英里(路程)。

  (4)你见过下冰雹吗?

  (5)由你来决定该怎么办?

  (6)据说他已去过美国两次了。

  (7)可惜你错过了那次音乐会。

  (8)看来,他很害怕。

  (9)牛奶已经泼翻,哭也无用。(即:作无益的后悔无济于事。)

  (10)几个月之后我们才又见面。

  3. 用强调句型改写下列句子。(划线部分为中心成分)

  (1)She has been studying French only for three months.

  (2)He has painted the windows green.

  (3)John bought the car from Henry.

  (4)I met Henry in New York.

  (5)He didn't come home until 11 o'clock last night.

  翻译句子************************************:

  (1)It is getting dark earlier in winter.

  (2)It is no use asking her because she didn't know anything about it.

  (3)It's two miles from here to the bus station.

  (4)Have you seen it hailing?

  (5)It is up to you decide what to do.

  (6)It is said that he has been to the U.S.A. twice.

  (7)It's a pity that you've missed the concert.

  (8)It seems that he is much afraid.

  (9)It's no use crying over spilt milk.

  (10)It was several months before we met again.

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