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自考英语语法复习资料(8)

2007-05-23 10:18   【 】【我要纠错

  4)不定式作补语:

  ①不定式可以和名词或代词一起构成复合结构作动词的宾语,这时不定式被称为宾语补足语。如:

  I would like you to help me with my English exercises. 我想请你帮我做英语练习。

  I never expected the shoes to be worn out so soon. 我从来没想到鞋子这么快就穿破了。

  注意:动词help后面接不定式作宾语或宾语补足语可以带to也可以不带to.如:

  Who can help me (to) carry this heavy box? 谁能帮我拎这个重箱子?

  ②在make,let,have等使役动词和see,watch,notice,hear,feel等感官动词后的复合宾语中,动词不定式不带to.

  I often hear her sing in the next room. 我经常听到她在隔壁唱歌。

  They make the baby go to bed at 7:00 p.m. every day. 他们每天让孩子晚上7:00上床睡觉。

  注意:get,leave等词也有“让”“叫”的意思,和使役动词意思相近,但它们后面的不定式作宾语补足语必须要有to.如:

  I'll get him to try it again. 我将让他再试一次。

  How could you leave him to have supper with a stranger?

  你怎么让他跟一个陌生人一起吃晚饭?

  注意:当使役动词和感官动词变为被动语态时,不定式就成了主语补语,作主语补语的不定式必须加to.如:

  Though he had often made his little sister cry,today he was made to cry by his little sister. 尽管他经常弄哭他的小妹妹,但今天他却被他的小妹妹弄哭了。

  He is often heard to sing the song. 经常有人听到他唱这首歌。

  ③think,consider,believe,declare,suppose,find,imagine,know,understand,take,prove,feel等动词后面接的不定式短语作补语多由to be+形容词或名词构成,think,consider,find后的to be常可省略。如:

  When he woke up,she found herself (to be ) badly injured.

  她醒来的时候,发现自己受了重伤。

  I thought her (to be) nice and honest the first time I met her.

  我第一次见到她的时候就认为她人很好,很诚实。

  含有此类复合宾语的句子变成被动语态时,不定式同样被称之为主语补足语。如:

  The young man was considered to have great promise. 这个年轻人被认为大有前途。

  The situation was found to be quite encouraging. 形势看来很使人鼓舞。

  ④以be said,be reported,be known,seem,happen,prove,appear等构成谓语的句子中,动词不定式通常也可看作主语补语。如:

  More than 20 people were reported to have been killed in the accident.

  据报道,有20多个人死于事故。

  I happened to be talking with him when he was hit by a car. 他被汽车撞的时候,我碰巧在和他谈话。

  5)不定式作定语:

  不定式在句中作定语通常放在其所修饰的名词或代词之后,以下几种情况常用不定式作定语:

  ①能带不定式作宾语的动词,其同源名词可以带不定式作定语,常见的有attempt,decision,promise,plan,intention,failure,wish,determination等。如:

  He hasn't kept his promise to write to his parents regularly. 他没有遵守诺言定期给他父母亲写信。

  My wish to be a teacher is quite understandable. 我想成为一个教师的愿望是可以理解的。

  ②常与不定式搭配的形容词,其同源名词一般可以带不定式作定语,常见的有ability,anxiety,eagerness,ambition等。如:

  His eagerness to finish his work in time was quite obvious.他急切地想准时完成工作是很明显的。

  We admire his ability to speak a foreign language so well.

  我们欣赏他能把一门外语说得这么好。

  ③序数词、形容词最高级或被only,last,next等词修饰的名词可以用不定式作定语。如:

  He is always the first person to come and the last one to leave.他总是第一个来最后一个离开。

  The next person to attend the meeting is Dr. Baker.下一个出席会议的人是贝克先生。

  ④还有一些名词经常带不定式作定语。如:person,man,thing,something,anything,nothing,time,way,reason,chance,courage,opportunity等。如:

  We students should have the courage to face any difficulty.

  我们学生应该有勇气面对任何困难。

  He had no reason to leave his friends and live alone on the island.

  他没有理由离开他的朋友独自住到岛上去。

  ⑤不定式作定语时,有时与被修饰的名词之间有意义上的动宾关系,如果该不定式动词是不及物动词,它后面需加上适当的介词。如:

  There is nothing to worry about. 没什么可担心的。

  There are many interesting books to choose from,but I don't know which to borrow. 有很多有趣的书可以挑选,但我不知道该借哪一本。

  6)不定式作状语:

  不定式作状语可以表示行为的目的、结果、原因、条件等。

  ① 不定式作目的状语,有时也可以用in order (not) to,so as (not) to结构。如:

  In order to protect the young plants from the sun,Mother put them in the shade.

  为了保护幼苗不被太阳晒坏,妈妈把它们放到了阴凉处。

  He got up very early this morning so as not to be late for school again.

  今天早上他起身很早以免上学再迟到。

  注意:so as (not) to do不可以置于句首。

  ②不定式作结果状语,常见的结构有too…to,enough…to,so…as to,such…as to,only to…等。如:

  The question is too difficult for me to answer. 对我来说,这个问题很难回答。

  He said he was clever enough to deal with it by himself.他说他足够聪明可以独自应付这件事。

  Will you be so kind as to turn down the radio? 请你帮我把收音机调低一点好吗?

  He woke up only to find himself in hospital. 他醒来发现自己在医院里。

  注意:too…to通常表示太……而不……,但在下列句子中没有否定的意思。

  She is only too glad to stay at home. 她太想留在家里了。

  He is too anxious to know the examination results. 他很急切地想知道考试结果。

  ③不定式作原因状语,通常用来修饰表示情感、心理状态、性格等的形容词。常见的形容词有:happy,glad,lucky,fortunate,surprised,angry,anxious,ready,quick,slow,cruel,clever,frightened,shocked,sorry,eager,proud,disappointed,foolish,impatient,unwise,naughty等。如:

  They are surprised to learn of his death. 得知他死亡的消息,他们很惊讶。

  We are proud to be young people of new China. 成为新中国的青年,我们感到很骄傲。

  另外,hard,difficult,easy,fit,comfortable等词也可以接动词不定式。这时候,作句子主语的除了是表示人的词外,还可以是表示物的词。如:

  The water is not fit to drink. 这水不适合饮用。

  The room is very comfortable to live in. 这个房间住起来很舒服。

  注意:后两句中的不定式与句子的主语或宾语之间是动宾关系,此时如果不定式动词是不及物动词,则需要带上适当的介词。

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