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自考英语语法复习资料(31)

2007-05-23 16:36   【 】【我要纠错

  3 虚拟语气在表语从句中的用法。

  当主语为advice,suggestion,order,proposal等词时后接表语从句,表语从句中的谓语动词常用“(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某人建议、劝告、命令等的内容。如:

  My advice is that you should practise speaking English as often as possible.我的建议是你尽可能经常地练习说英语。

  The order from the commander was that the troops should set off for the front immediately.司令官的命令是部队立即开拔去前线。

  4.特殊的虚拟语气结构。

  (1)虚拟语气用在状语从句中

  由as if 或as though引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时,从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气。动词形式用动词的过去式(be→were)或had+过去分词。如:

  The teacher treats the student as if he were her own child.这位老师带这位学生就象她的亲生孩子一样。

  He speaks as if he had been to the United States.他说得好象他真的到过美国似的。

  (2)在It is time (that) …; I'd rather (that)…句型中从句的谓语动词常用动词的过去式表示虚拟语气,意思是“该干某事了,时间已经有些晚了”“我宁愿/希望”。如:

  It is time that we did something to stop pollution.该我们做些什么制止污染的时候了。

  It is time that Father picked up Lily from the kindergarten.该父亲去幼儿园接莉莉的时候了。

  I'd rather you told me the truth.我真希望你告诉我真相。

  I'd rather I didn't see you again.我宁愿不再见着你。

  (3)虚拟语气用在简单句中

  a 情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌、或委婉的语气,常用于日常会话中。如:

  Would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office?请你告诉我去邮局的路好吗?

  It would be better for you not to stay up too late.你最好别熬夜到很晚。

  b在一些习惯表达中。如:

  You'd better set off now.你最好现在就出发。

  I'd rather not tell you the secret.我情愿不告诉你这个秘密。

  c用 “may+动词原形”表示祝愿,但愿,此时may须置于句首(多用于正式文体中)。如:

  May good luck be yours!祝你好运!

  May you be happy!祝你快乐!

  May you do even better!祝你取得更大成就!

  用动词原形。例如:

  Long live the people! 人民万岁!

  “God bless you,” said the priest.牧师说:“愿上帝保佑你!”

  5.虚拟语气在同位语从句中的用法

  在名词advice,suggestion,order,proposal等后接的同位语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气,起形式为 “(should)+动词原形”,说明“建议”,“劝告”,“命令”等的具体内容。如:

  The order came that the work should be finished two days ahead of time.提前两天完成工作的命令传来了。

  Reluctantly she accepted their proposal that she should be operated on.她勉强接受了他们要她去接受手术的建议。

  (一)主从句时间不一致情况下的虚拟语气(混合条件句)

  有时条件从句中的动作和结果与主句中的动作,发生的时间不一致,这时动作的形式应根据它所表示的时间加以调整。如:

  If you had followed my advice,you would be able to finish the work now.如果你当时听了我的话,现在就能完成这份工作了。(从句说明过去,主句说明现在。)

  If I were you,I would have gone to her birthday party.如果我是你,我就去参加她的生日晚会了。(从句说明现在,主句说明过去。)

  If you hadn't lent me some money,I couldn't have bought the new house and most likely I would be still living in the dangerous house now.假若你不借钱给我,我不可能买下这幢新房,很可能现在还住在危房里。(从句说明过去,主句说明过去和现在。)

  (二)含蓄条件句

  非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况;

  1. 条件暗含在短语中。如:

  (1)W hat would I have done without you? 如没有你,我会怎么办呢?(条件暗含在分词短语without you中)

  (2) It would be easier to do it this way. 这样做会比较容易。(条件暗含在不定式短语to do it this way中)

  (3) This same thing,happening in wartime,would lead to a disaster. 同样的事,如发生在战时,就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime中)

  (4) But for your help we couldn't have succeeded in the experiment. 如果没有你的帮助,我们的实验是不会成功。 (暗含条件是but for your help)

  (5) He must have the strength of a hippopotamus,or he never could have vanquished that great beast. 他一定是力大如河马,否则他绝不会击败那只庞大的野兽。(暗含条件是连词or)

  (6) Alone,he would have been terrified. 如是单独一人,他是会感到害怕的。(暗含条件是alone)

  2. 条件暗含在上下文中。如:

  (7) You might stay her forever. 你可以永远待在这儿。(可能暗含if you wanted to)

  (8) We would have succeeded. 我们本来是会成功的。(可能暗含if we had kept trying)

  (9) Your reputation would be ruined. 你的名誉会败坏的。(可能暗含if you should accept it)

  (10) I would appreciate a little of your time. 谢谢你给我一点时间吧。(可能暗含if you were so kind as to give me a little of your time)

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