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自考英语语法复习资料(18)

2007-05-23 13:48   【 】【我要纠错

  (9)独立主格结构

  1. 独立结构的实质和类型

  所谓“独立结构”(Absolute Construction)实质就是带有自己主语的非限定分句和无动词分句。如前所述,非限定分句和无动词分句通常是以主语的一定成分作为自己的逻辑主语,从而依附于主语。但也有一些非限定分句和无动词分句带有自己的主语,从而在结构上与主语不发生关系,因此叫“独立结构”。其实,所谓“独立结构”也并非真正独立,它还是一种从属分词。

  “独立结构”按其结构形式,分为不定式“独立结构”,-ing分词“独立结构”,-ed分词“独立结构”和无动词“独立结构”,通常在句中起状语分句的作用。

  例如:

  (1) A number of officials followed the emperor,some to hold his robe,others to adjust his girdle,and so on. 许多官员尾随皇帝之后,有的拎着皇帝的衣袍,有的则给他整腰带等。(some to hold…和others to adjust…为不定式独立结构)

  (2) There being nothing else to do,we left. 由于没有其它事情可做,我们离开了。(There being…为-ing分词独立结构)

  (3) She gazed,her hands clasped to her breast. 她凝视着,双手叉在胸前。(her hands clasped…为-ed分词独立结构)

  (4) He went off,gun in hand. 他手里拿着枪离开了。(gun in hand为无动词独立结构)

  (5) The floor wet and slippery,we stayed outside. 由于地板又湿又滑,我们呆在屋外。(The floor wet…为无动词“独立结构”)

  2.“独立结构”的用法和意义

  由上述诸例可以看出,“独立结构”与主语之间通常用逗号隔开,但也有用破折号的。例如:

  (6) The room was in chaos—— dirty clothes strewn on the floor,cosmetics scattered over the dresser,empty bottles and cans everywhere. 房间一片混乱,脏衣服扔在地板上,化装品散乱在梳妆台上,到处都是空的瓶。

  在“独立结构”中做主语的名词词组有时可以省去限定词。例如:

  (7) The manager sat quietly in the office,(his) eyes closed. 经理静静地坐在办公室里,双目紧闭。

  “独立结构”的位置是比较灵活的,它可位于句首,句中或句尾。例如:

  (8) Their room was on the third floor,its window overlooking the sports ground. 他们的房间在三层楼上,窗户俯视着操场。

  (9) He guiding her,they stumbled through the street. 他引着他,两个人蹒跚地穿过那条街。

  (10) He,God willing,would be in the village before the second next month. 他,如果情况允许,将于下月二日前来到这个村庄。

  如果一句中含有几个“独立结构”,通常是把表示概括意义的结构置于最后。例如:

  (11) The professor was slammed against the wall,his body frisked,his wrists handcuffed,his dignity lost. 教授被猛推倒墙上,被搜了身,手被拷着,尊严尽失。

  “独立结构”在句中可表示多种含义。例如: 表示时间:

  (12) His homework done,Jim decided to go and see the play. =After his homework was done,Jim decided to go and see the play. 家庭作业完成之后,杰姆决定去看戏。

  (13) The meal over,we began to work again. =When the meal was over,we began to work again. 吃完饭,我们又开始干活。

  表示原因:

  (14) The last bus giving gone,we had to walk home. =Because the last bus had gone,we had to walk home. 由于末班车已开走,我们只得步行回家。

  (15) Her shirt caught on a nail,she could not move. =As her shirt was caught on a nail,she could not move. 由于裙子被钉子钩住,她不能移动。

  表示条件:

  (16) Whether permitting,the football match will be played on Wednesday. =If weather permits,the football match will be played on Wednesday. 假如天气允许的话,足球赛将在星期三举行。

  表示方式和伴随状况:

  (17) He put on his socks wrong side out. 他穿上袜子,反面朝上。

  (18) The children were watching the acrobatic show,their eye (being) wide open. 孩子们在看杂技表演,眼睛睁得很大。

  在上述诸例中,“独立结构”均可变为由with引导的介词词组,即在“独立结构”前可用介词with.介词with在此没有什么意义,只是比较口语化。例如:

  (19) They sat in the room with the curtains drawn. 他们坐在房间里,窗帘拉下来。

  With the tree growing tall,we get more shade. 树长高了,我们得到更多的阴凉。

  He came into the classroom with a book in his hand. 他手里拿着一本书走进教室。

  1. 不定式“独立结构”,-ing分词“独立结构”,-ed分词“独立结构”之间的区别。

  不定式“独立结构”表示即将发生的动作。例如:

  (1) We shall assemble at ten forty-five,the procession to start moving at precisely eleven. 我们将在十点四十五分集合,队伍整十一点开始游行。

  (2) The plan was that the two parties should first reach an agreement on the basic principle,the details to be worked put later. 计划是双方应先就基本原则达成协议,细节问题以后拟订。

  -ing分词“独立结构”表示正在进行的动作,且主语与-ing分词之间为主动关系。例如:

  (3) We redoubled our efforts,each man working like two. 我们加倍努力,每一个人就像干两个人的活。

  -ed分词“独立结构”表示已发生的动作,主语与-ed分词之间为被动关系。例如:

  (4) This done,we went home. 做完此事,我们就回去。

  (5) All our saving gone,we started looking for jobs. 积蓄全部用完了,我们就开始找工作。

  2. 无动词“独立结构”的常见类型:

  (1) 名词+介词短语

  (2) 名词+adj.或adv.

  例如:He sat st the table,collar off,head down,and pen in position,ready to begin the long letter.

  将下列每组句子连接成一句,至少使用一个独立结构。

  1. a. She stood back and looked at him. b. Her face smiled radiantly.

  2. a. His exam was finished. b. Porter stumbled wearily from the room.

  3. a. Henry Adams ran from the room . b. Cold shivers ran down his spine.

  4. a. The meeting was closed. b. Nobody had any more to say.

  5. a. There was no way for me to cross. b. I walked upstream on the south side.

  6. a. Marie sat on the edge of frail wooden chair in Irby‘s suite.

  b. The champagne glass was in her hand. c. Her tears were in her eyes.

  7. a. All the money had been spent. b. Jack started looking for work.

  8. a. The whole meeting was in uproar. b. The chairman abandoned the attempt to take a vote.

  9 a. My task was completed. b. I went to bed.

  10. a. In front of him stood a man. b. The man held a gun in his hand.

  11. a. Walking into the room,I saw Grandpa. b. He was sitting at the desk.

  c. His newspaper was spread before him.

  12. a. The prisoner stood quietly on the wooden platform. b. A small cotton bag was put over his face.

  c. His hands were tied behind his back. d. A noose was fixed securely about his neck.

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