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自考英语语法复习资料(13)

2007-05-23 11:03   【 】【我要纠错

  4)-ing分词作定语:

  ①单个的分词作定语一般放在被修饰词的前面。如:

  reading room 阅览室 swimming pool 游泳池 dining car 餐车

  sleeping car 卧车 singing competition 歌咏比赛 waiting room 候车室

  a waiting car 一辆等待着的车 a sleeping child一个酣睡的孩子 flying fish 飞鱼

  the exciting news令人振奋的消息 a boring speech令人乏味的演出

  ②-ing分词短语作定语应放在被修饰词的后面,也相当于一个定语从句。如:

  Who is the comrade standing by the door? 站在门边的同志是谁?

  They lived in a house facing south. 他们住在一所朝南的房子里。

  ③–ing分词还可以作非限制性定语,相当于一个非限制性定语从句,常用逗号和句子其它部分分开。如:

  The words,usually dealing with current work,were mostly written by himself.

  歌词一般讲当前的工作,大部分是他自己写的。

  When she appeared,John,wearing a dirty and worn-out overcoat,ran to her with joy. 当她出现的时候,约翰穿着一件又脏又破的大衣高兴地跑了过去。

  5) -ing分词做状语:

  -ing分词作状语可以表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。

  ①-ing分词短语作时间状语,相当于一个时间状语从句,有时可由连词when,while引出。如:

  While reading the book,he nodded from time to time. 他一边看书,一边不时地点头。

  Seeing those pictures,she remembered her childhood. 看到那些画,他想起了她的童年。

  ②-ing分词短语作原因状语,相当于一个原因状语从句。如:

  Not knowing his address,I can't send this book to him. 因为不知道他的地址,我不能把这本书送给他。

  Many of us,being so excited,couldn't go to sleep that night. 因为非常激动,那晚我们许多人都没睡着。

  ③–ing分词短语作结果状语。如:

  His father died,leaving him a lot of money. 他父亲死了,留给他许多钱。

  She was so angry that she threw the toy on the ground,breaking it into pieces.

  她非常生气,把玩具扔在地上,把它摔成了碎片。

  ④-ing分词作伴随状语,可以放在句子的前面、后面或中间,表示主语的另一个、较次要的动作。如:

  They stood there for half an hour watching the stars in the sky. 他们在那儿站了半小时,观察着天上的星星。

  Following the old man,the young people started walking slowly.

  年轻人跟在老人的后面开始慢慢地走起来。

  ⑤-ing分词间或也可作条件状语和让步状语,相当于一个状语从句。如:

  A person standing at the foot of a high mountain will find himself very small.

  一个人如站在大山的脚下会发现自己很渺小。

  Knowing all this,they made me pay for the damage. 尽管知道了一切情况,他们还是要我赔偿损失。

  注:-ing分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语就是整个句子的主语。

  ⑥“with/without+名词普通格或代词宾格+-ing分词”结构在句中作状语,表示伴随情况或时间、原因等。如:

  His hair became grey with the years passing. 随着时间的推移,他的头发变花白了。

  Without anyone noticing,he slipped through the window. 没人注意,他从窗户溜了出去。

  6) -ing分词作补语:

  ①——ing分词可以在see,hear,notice,watch,feel,look at,listen to,observe,have,get,leave,keep,set,catch,find等动词后面和一个名词或代词构成一个复合宾语,作宾语补语。如:

  I noticed a man running out of the bank when I got off the car.

  我下车的时候注意到一个男人匆匆忙忙地从银行里跑出来。

  Last night the shopkeeper caught a child stealing some food in the shop.

  昨晚,店主在商店里抓到一个小孩在偷东西。

  ②上面这类句子也可变成被动语态,这时,-ing分词可看成是主语补语。如:

  We were kept waiting for quite a long time. 让我们等了好长时间。

  Jily was never heard singing that song again. 人们再也没有听到吉丽唱这首歌了。

  5. -ing分词的复合结构:

  -ing分词的复合结构通常由物主代词、人称代词宾格、名词所有格或者名词的普通格+-ing分词构成,在句子开头时必须用物主代词和名词所有格,通常在句中作主语和宾语。如:

  His coming made us very happy. 他的到来使我们大家都很高。

  He was awakened by someone's knocking at the door. 他被某人的敲门声吵醒了。

  1. –ing分词作主语和表语时与不定式的区别:

  -ing分词和动词不定式作主语和表语的主要区别在于:在表示比较抽象的一般的多次性行为时多用-ing分词;在表示具体的或一次性的动作,特别是将来的动作时,多用不定式。如:

  Smoking is forbidden here. (泛指吸烟)这里禁止吸烟。

  It's not good for you to smoke so much. (指你吸烟)吸这么多烟对你的身体不好。

  My job is teaching. 我的工作是教书。

  My job is to teach you English this term. 我这一学期的工作是教你们英语。

  2. 高中阶段能接-ing分词作宾语的常见动词:

  mind(介意),suggest(建议),enjoy(欣赏,),admit(承认),appreciate(感激,欣赏),avoid(避免),delay(推迟),dislike(不喜欢,厌恶),escape(逃脱),finish(完成),forgive(宽恕),imagine(想象),keep(保持),miss(错过),practise(训练),resist(抵抗,抵制),risk(冒险),deny(拒绝,否认),consider(考虑)等。

本文转载链接:自考英语语法复习资料(13)

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