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自考英语语法复习资料(33)

2007-05-23 17:32   【 】【我要纠错

  (18)主谓一致

  1、定义:所谓“主谓一致”,就是指谓语在人称和数上必须受主语的人称和数的支配。这是英语和汉语在构句里的又一迥异之处。

  2、主谓一致的种类:

  ⑴ 语法形式上的一致

  主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词为复数形式。如:

  I often help him and he often helps me. 我经常帮助他,他经常帮助我。

  We often help each other and learn from each other. 我们经常互相帮助,互相学习。

  ⑵ 意义上的一致

  a.主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。如:

  The crowd were surrounding the government official. 人群包围住了这位政府官员。

  单数形式代表复数内容的词有:people,police,cattle等。如:

  The Chinese people are brave and hard-working. 中国人民勇敢而又勤劳。

  b.主语形式为复数,而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。如:

  Great Expectations was written by Charles Dickens in 1860. 《远大前程》是查尔斯?狄更斯1860年所著。

  形复意单的单词有:news,works 和一些以s结尾的书名、组织机构的名称(如:“The Selected Poems of Li Bai”,the United States,the United Nations)以及以ics结尾的学科名称(如:physics,politics,maths,economics等)。

  ⑶ 就近原则

  就近原则即谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。

  a. 并列主语用连词or,either…or,neither…nor,not only…but also等连接,谓语应同相邻的主语保持人称和数的一致。如:

  Not only the students but also the teacher enjoys listening to the music.

  不仅学生而且这位老师也喜欢听这种音乐。

  Are either you or he wrong? 要么是你错,要么是他错吗?

  b. 在there be 表存在的句式中,主语是两个或多个名词(短语)的并列时,be 的形式与最前边的一个名词(短语)一致。如:

  There is a pen,two knives and several books on the table.

  ═ There are two knives,a pen and several books on the table.桌子上有一支钢笔、两把小刀和几本书。

  C. 副词或介词短语在句首的倒装句中,必须认准哪是主语。如:

  Between the two buildings stands a monument. 两幢楼之间耸立着一块纪念碑。

  On the ship were over 2,200 people. More than 1,500 people lost their lives. Among those was the young woman. 船上有2,2001人,1,500多人丧生,这位年轻妇女也在其中。

  名词作主语

  1、某些集体名词,如family,team等作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式,如果就其中一个个成员而言,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

  My family is large.    我的家庭是个大家庭。 (看作一整体)

  My family all like music. 我的家人都喜欢音乐。 (指家庭中一个个成员之和)

  属于这类的集体名词还有:audience,class,club,company,crew,crowd,group,government,party,public,staff 等。

  名词population一词的使用情况类似。如:

  The population of the earth is increasing very fast. 地球上的人口数增长很快 .

  One third of the population in this country enjoy drinking coffee.  这国三分之二的人喜欢喝咖啡。

  “a group(crowd) of+复数名词”等短语之后的谓语动词也同样可用单数或复数,前者强调整体,后者强调各个部分。

  2、单、复数同形的名词作主语时,按意义一致的原则。作单数意义时,谓语动词用单数,反之,谓语动词用复数。这类名词有:sheep,fish,deer,means(方法),works(工厂),Chinese,Japanese等。如:

  Every means has been tried out without much result.每一种方法都试过了却没什么结果。

  All means have been tried out without much result. 所有方法都试过了却没什么结果。

  This shoe works was set up in 1980. 这家鞋厂建于1980年。

  Those shoe works were all set up in 1980. 这些鞋厂都建于1980年。

  当它们前面有a,such a,this,that修饰时,谓语用单数;有all,such,these,those修饰时,谓语用复数。

  3、名词所有格之后的名词被省略,这种情况一般指商店、工场、住宅等,作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。如:

  My doctor's is not far from my home. 我的家庭医生诊所离我家不远。

  My uncle's is just across the street.  我叔叔家在街对面。

  常见的省略名词有:the baker's,the barber's,the carpenter's,the Smith's 等等。

  表示店铺的名词一般作集体名词看待,但作主语时,谓语动词常常用复数。如:

  Richardson's have a lot of goods to sell. Richardson的店里有许多货可卖。

  4、当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间等复数名词时,往往可以根据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

  Two hours is enough for me to finish the work. 两小时对我来说完成这项工作足够了。

  Two hundred dollars gives Jack much help.   两百美元帮了Jack大忙。

  5、如果主语有more than one… 或many a…构成,尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词仍然用单数形式。如:

  More than one comrade has asked to stay. 不止一位同志已经要求留下。

  Many a passenger was killed in the accident. 许多乘客在这一次事故中丧生。

  但是“more+复数名词+than one”结构及“more than one hundred+复数名词”结构之后,谓语动词一般用复数形式。如:

  More members than one are against your plan. 不止一位成员反对你的计划。

  6、不定代词each,every,no所修饰的名词及each…and each…,every…and every…,no…and no…,many a …and many a…结构作主语时,谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:

  Every man and every woman is at work. 所有男的和女的都在工作。

  Many a desk and many a bench is to be taken out of the hall. 许多课桌和凳子将被搬出大厅。

  7、表示成双成套的名词,如:chopsticks (筷子),compasses,clothes,glasses,jeans,scissors,shoes,socks,trousers等,作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式;但如与a kind of,a pair of,the pair of,a series of 连用,作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

  The trousers are in the drawer. 裤子在抽屉里。

  There is a pair of shoes under the bed. 有一双鞋在床下。

  The pair of shoes is rather expensive. 这双袜子很贵。

  8、this kind of book ═ a book of this kind (这种书),其谓语动词用单数;短语this kind of books═ books of this kind═ these kind of books(口语)(这类书),但this kind of books作主语时,谓语动词用单数;books of this kind 和these kind of books作主语时,谓语动词用复数。all/these kinds of 后跟复数名词,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

  This kind of books is very popular with young people. 这类书很受年轻人欢迎。

  Books of this kind are very popular with young people.这类书很受年轻人欢迎。

  These kind of parties are dangerous. 这类政党很危险。

  All kinds of flowers have come out in the valley. 山谷里各种各样的花已竞相开放。

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