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自考英语语法复习资料(14)

2007-05-23 11:53   【 】【我要纠错

  3. 有些动词既能接不定式,又能接-ing分词,含义有所不同。如:

  ①forget, remember, regret等词后面接不定式表示不定式动作后于谓语动作,而后接-ing分词作宾语表示分词动作先于谓语动作。如:

  Do you remember seeing me before? 你记得以前见过我吗?

  Remember to lock the door when you leave. 离开时要记得锁门。

  ②动词mean, stop, try, go on等动词后面接分词和接不定式作宾语,意思也有所不同。如:

  I try not to think about that. 我尽量不去想那件事。

  Would you please try doing that again? 请你再试一次好吗?

  I mean to change it for another one. 我想换成另外一个。

  Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 误了这班车就意味着再等一个小时。

  Having finished the exercises, we went on to learn the new words in the next unit.

  做完练习以后,我们继续学习下一单元的单词。

  After a short rest, they went on working. 短暂地休息以后,他们又继续工作。

  He stopped talking when the bell rang. 铃响的时候,他停止了讲话。

  While working, he stopped to talk with Tom at times. 工作的时候,他不时地停下来和汤姆谈话。

  注意:有时人们把stop后的动词不定式理解为目的状语。

  ③动词allow, advise, forbid, permit等可直接跟-ing分词作宾语,不可以接动词不定式作宾语,但可接不定式作宾语补语。如:

  Please permit me to say a few words. 请允许我说几句话。

  We don't permit smoking here. 我们这儿不允许吸烟。

  ④动词need, require, want作“需要”解时,后面接-ing分词或不定式的被动式。如:

  The room wants cleaning/to be cleaned. 这个房间需要打扫。

  These little children require looking after carefully/to be looked after carefully.

  这些小孩需要细心地照料。

  ⑤动词like, hate, prefer等后面,如表示一般性动作,多用-ing分词;如指特定的具体的某次动作,多用不定式。如:

  I like swimming, but I don't like to swim with you. 我喜欢游泳,但我不喜欢和你一起游泳。

  I prefer walking to school every day. 我情愿每天步行去学校。

  I prefer to stay at home today. 今天我情愿呆在家里。

  ⑥动词begin, start后面,如表示有意识地开始做某事,常用-ing分词,否则用不定式更多一些。如:

  We began to do that job last year. 我们去年开始做那工作的。

  They started talking about the film at once. 他们立刻开始谈论那部电影。

  注:下面几种情况多用不定式作宾语:

  a. 当start, begin本身用于进行时态时。

  When the teacher came into the room, he was starting to write to his parents.

  老师走进教室的时候,他正开始写信给他的父母亲。

  b. 当start, begin后接表示心理活动的动词时。

  Hearing the news, he started to think of a good way to solve the problem.

  一听到消息,他就开始考虑一个好办法来解决这个问题。

  c. 当句子的主语是无生命的东西时。

  We were about to leave when it began to rain. 我们正准备离开,天开始下雨了。

  4. -ing分词作表语的两种不同含义:

  ①-ing分词作表语可以表示主语的内容是什么。如:

  Their job is building houses. 他们的工作是盖房子。

  The real question is getting to know the needs of the people. 真正的问题是了解人民的需要。

  ②-ing分词作表语还可以表示主语所具有的特征。如:

  This story is very interesting. 这故事很有趣。

  The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令人困惑。

  ①–ing分词作定语可用来说明被修饰的名词的用途和性能。如:

  reading material 阅读材料 walking stick 手杖 fishing pole 鱼杆

  flying suit 飞行服 writing table 写字台 listening practice 听力训练

  ②-ing分词作定语还可以表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态,在意思上接近一个定语从句,可以表示正在进行的动作,也可表示经常性动作或当时的状态。如:

  developing countries = countries that are developing 发展中国家

  a growing city = a city that is growing 发展着的城市

  an ordinary-looking house = a house that looks ordinary 看起来很普通的房子

  a touching story = a story that is touching 一个动人的故事

  working people= people who are working 劳动人民

  6. 不定式和-ing分词作宾语补语的区别:

  在see, hear, feel, watch, notice等感官动词后,既可用-ing分词构成复合宾语,也可用不定式构成复合宾语,两者之间有一定的区别。用-ing分词时,表示动作正在进行;用不定式时,表示动作发生了,即动作的全过程结束了。如:

  Do you hear someone knocking at the door? (Someone is knocking at the door.) 有人在敲门你听见了吗?

  Do you hear someone knock at the door? (Someone knocked at the door just now.) 你听见有人敲门了吗?

  7. 高中阶段常见的带介词to的短语,后接-ing分词或名词。如:

  admit to(承认), contribute to(捐助、贡献), get down to(着手做), give way to(让位于),keep to (坚持、遵守), lead to (导致),look forward to(期待), take to(从事), turn to (求助于), stick to(忠于、坚持), point to(指向、表明), see to (注意、处理), be used to (习惯于), devote oneself to (献身于), be equal to (胜任的、等于), be familiar to (为……熟悉)。

  高中阶段有一些固定的-ing分词短语,如generally speaking(一般来说), judging from…(根据……来判断), considering…(考虑到……), talking of…(谈到……,提到……), supposing…(假如……)等,它们的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致。这种短语可以被称之为句子的状语,也可当作一个插入语。如:

  Judging from his accent, he must come from Canada. 从他的口音看他一定来自加拿大。

  Considering how poor he was, we decided to let him attend the concert for free.

  考虑到他是多么的穷,我们决定让他免费听音乐会。

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