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自考英语语法复习资料(27)

2007-05-23 16:06   【 】【我要纠错

  (16)被动语态

  (I)被动语态的概念

  语态也是动词的一种形式,表示主语与谓语之间的关系。英语有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是谓语动作的执行者,如:People grew rice in this area some years ago.被动语态表示主语是谓语动作的承受者,如:A new swimming pool will be built on our school.

  (II)被动语态的构成

  被动语态的形式是由“助动词be+动词的过去分词”构成。助动词be随着主语的人称,数,时态和语气的不同而变化。各种时态的被动语态形式如下:

  1.一般现在时 am/is/are+V(p.p)

  人们利用电能运转机器。People use electricity to run machines. Electricity is used to run machines.

  Is electricity used to run machines? Yes,it is . / No,it isn't.

  2.一般过去时 was/were + V(p.p)

  昨天我们在山坡上种了许多树。We planted many trees on the hill yesterday.

  Many trees were planted on the hill yesterday.

  Were many trees planted on the hill yesterday? Yes,they were. / No,they were not.

  3.一般将来时 will/shall +be+V(p.p)

  下星期我们将举行一场运动会。We will hold a sports meeting next week.

  A sports meeting will be held next week.

  Will a sports meeting be held next week? Yes,it will. / No,it won't.

  4.过去将来时 should/would +be+V(p.p)

  他告诉我们人们将在他家乡建一个大水坝。He told us that people would build a big reservoir in his hometown.

  We were told that a big reservoir would be built in his hometown.

  Were you told that a big reservoir would be built in his hometown? Yes,we were./No,we weren't.

  5.现在进行时 am/is/are +being+V(p.p)

  他正在油漆房子。He is painting the house. A house is being painted.

  Is the house being painted? Yes,it is. / No,it isn't .

  6.过去进行时 was/were +being+V(p.p)

  当我进厨房时,她正在做蛋糕。She was making a cake when I came into the kitchen.

  A cake was being made when I came into the kitchen.

  Was a cake being made when I came into the kitchen? Yes,it was./ No,it wasn't.

  7.现在完成时 have/has +been+V(p.p)

  他已经结束工作了。He has finished his work. His work has been finished.

  Has his work been finished? Yes,it has. / No,it hasn't.

  8.过去完成时 had +been+V(p.p)

  到上个月为止,他们已经把这本书翻译成了英语。

  They had translated the book into English by the end of last month.

  The book had been translated into English by the end of last month.

  Had the book been translated into English by the end of last month? Yes,it had./ No,it hadn't.

  9.将来完成时will have +been+V(p.p)

  The students will have learned 2,000 words by the end of next year.

  2,000 words will have been learned by the end of next year.

  Will 2,000 words have been learned by the end of next year? Yes,they will./No,they won't.

  10. 过去将来完成时would have +been+V(p.p)

  He told me that Mr. Brown would have taught them for two years by the next summer.

  I was told that they would have been taught by Mr. Brown for two years by the next summer.

  注:1.含有情态动词的谓语变成被动语态时,用“情态动词+be+V(p.p)”构成。如:

  You must operate the machine with care. The machine must be operated with care.

  Must the machine be operated with care? Yes,it must. / No,it mustn't.

  2.含有“be going to”,“be to”等结构的谓语,变成被动语态时,分别用“be going to +be +V(p.p)”和“be to+be+V(p.p)“。如:

  We are going to discuss the problem at the meeting.

  The problem is going to be discussed at the meeting.

  Is the problem going to be discussed at the meeting? Yes,it is. / No,it isn't.

  3.被动语态除常用be加过去分词构成外,还可用“get+过去分词”结构。这种结构多用在口语中。如:

  The boy got hurt when he was riding to school.

  4.被动语态没有完成进行时态,也没有将来进行时态,如果要将这些时态的主动结构变为被动结构,可以用完成时态或一般将来时态来表示。如:

  他已被检查过了。He had been being examined.

  通常用He has been examined.来代替。

  当我们到那儿时他将正被检查。He will be being examined when we get there.通常用He will be examined when we get there.

  (III)被动语态的几种句型

  将主动语态转换成被动语态,通常分以下四步进行:

  1.将主动语态中的宾语转换成被动语态的主语。

  2.将主动语态中的动词改为“be+V(p.p)”

  3.原来主动语态中的主语,如果需要,放在by后面以它的宾格形式出现,如没有必要,可以省略。

  4.主动语态中的其他句子成分不变。

  由于主动语态结构的不同,因而转换成被动语态的方式也各有不同,现分类说明如下:

  a.由及物动词形成的被动语态:

  (1)S+V+O 主语+动词+宾语

  People grow rice in the south. Rice is grown in the south.

  注:带有宾语从句的句子转换成被动语态时,需要将宾语从句变为主语从句,通常用形式主语来代替,而将主语从句后置。

  They said that he would come back soon. It was said that he would come back soon.类似的还有:

  It is reported / believed /hoped /supposed that ……

  (2)S+V+O+C 主语+动词+宾语+宾补

  We elected Li Ming monitor of our class. Li Ming was elected monitor of our class.

  注:在主动结构中跟不带to的动词不定式作宾补变为被动结构时应加上to作主语补足语。

  奴隶们被奴隶主强迫整日整夜工作。Slave-owners made slaves work all day and all night.

  Slaves were made to work all day and all night by slave-owners.

本文转载链接:自考英语语法复习资料(27)

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