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自考英语语法复习资料(22)

2007-05-23 14:34   【 】【我要纠错

  (13)过去完成时

  1 过去完成时的定义

  过去完成时表在过去某一时刻以前已经完成的动作。强调“过去的过去”

  2 过去完成时的构成

  过去完成时由“had+过去分词”构成

  3 过去完成时的基本句型

  肯定式

  否定式

  疑问式

  简略回答

  I had worked

  I had not worked

  Had I worked?

  Yes,I had. No,I hadn't.

  He/She/It had worked

  He /She/It had not worked

  Had he/she/it worked?

  Yes,he/she/it had.

  No,he/she/it hadn't.

  We had worked

  We had not worked

  Had we worked?

  Yes,we had.

  No,we hadn't.

  You had worked

  You had not worked

  Had you worked?

  Yes,you had.

  No,you hadn't.

  They had worked

  They had not worked

  Had they worked?

  Yes,they had.

  No,they hadn't.

  4 过去完成时的基本用法

  (1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,即“过去的过去”。可以用by,before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。例如:

  By nine o'clock last night,we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship.到昨晚9点钟,我们已经收到200 张飞船发来的图片。

  (2)表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for,since构成的时间状语连用。例如:

  I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.当车来的时候,我在车站已等了20分钟。

  He said he had worked in that factory since 1949.他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。

  (3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。例如:

  Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine.史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。

  I didn't know a thing about the verbs,for I had not studied my lesson.我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课。

  (4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。例如:

  I returned the book that I had borrowed.我已归还了我借的书。

  She found the key that she had lost.她丢失的钥匙找到了。

  (5)过去完成时常常用在宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。例如:

  He said that he had known her well.他说他很熟悉她。

  I thought I had sent the letter a week before. 我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。

  (6)在包含有when,until等连词的复合句中,如果主句谓语动词和从句谓语动词所表示的过去动作不是同时发生的,那么先发生的动作通常用过去完成时表示。例如:

  When I woke up,it had already stopped raining.我醒来时雨已停了。

  She didn't go to bed until she had finished he work.她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。

  注意:如果两个动作紧接着发生,则常常不用过去完成时,特别是在包含before和after的复合句中,因为这时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。例如:

  After he arrived in England,Marx worked hard to improve his English.马克思到达英格兰之后,努力提高他的英语水平。

  (7)动词think,want,hope,mean,plan,intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。例如:

  They had wanted to help but could not get there in time.他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里。

  We had hoped to be able to come and see you .我们本来希望能来看看你。

  (8)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…,no sooner…than…,It was the first (second,etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。例如:

  Hardly had he began to speak when the audience interrupted him.他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。

  No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.他刚到就又走了。

  It was the third time that he had been out of work that year.这是他那一年第三次失业了。

  1.历史事实通常用一般过去时表示,如:

  They learned that President Lincoln led the American War.

  He told the students that Hitler killed millions of Jews.

  2.过去完成时可以代替一般过去时,表示惊奇,如:

  I saw her coming,but in a minute,she had disappeared.

  They wanted to keep it a secret,but a few days later,everyone had known it.

  3. 过去完成时可表示对后来动作的影响,对比下面两组句子:

  A) He had eaten something before taking dinner. (So he had no appetite at dinner.)

  B) He ate something before taking dinner. (He might have his usual appetite at dinner.)

  A) She felt better after she had taken a few days'rest. (Feeling better is the result of taking a few days'rest.)

  B) She felt better after she took a few days'rest. (Feeling better may not be the result of taking a few days's rest.)

  单项选择

  1.By the time he was twelve,Edison ______ to make a living by himself.

  A. would begin B. has begun C. had begun D. was begun

  2.That dinner was the most expensive meal we _______.

  A. would have B. have had C. had never had D. had ever had

  3.Tom was disappointed that most of the guests ______ when he ______ at the party.

  A. left; had arrived B. left; arrived C. had left; had arrived D. had left; arrived

  4.When Jack arrived he learned Mary ______ for almost an hour.

  A. had gone B. has set off C. had left D. had been away

  5. ——How long _______ each other before they ______ married? ——For about a year.

  A. have they known; get B. did they know; were going to get

  C. do they know; are going to get D. had they known; got

  6.Helen ________ her key in the office so she had to wait until her hu**and _______ home.

  A. has left; comes B. left; had come C. had left; came D. had left; would come

  下列各句中出现了时态使用错误,请指出并改正

  1.When she was at the middle school,she often reads in the library.

  2.When she got home,the children went to bed.

  3.He said he didn't see his uncle for many years.

  4.I didn't go to see the film because I saw it before.

  5.The wind was still blowing,but the rain has stopped.

  6.By the end of last term we learned about 1,500 English words.

  7.Lu Xun had spoken to the youth about the study of the foreign language.

  8.Yang Mei learned some English before she came to this school.

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